On this page, you will find NCERT Class 6 History Chapter 6 Notes Pdf free download. CBSE Class 6 Social Science Notes History Chapter 6 SST Kingdoms, Kings and an Early Republic will seemingly help them to revise the important concepts in less time.
Kingdoms, Kings and an Early Republic Class 6 Notes Social Science History Chapter 6
CBSE Class 6 History Chapter 6 Notes Understanding the Lesson
1. Earlier, the Raja was chosen by the jana, (the people). Around 3000 years ago, we find some changes in choosing the ‘rajas’. Some men became recognized as rajas by performing very big sacrifices.
2. This was the time, when ashvamedha or horse sacrifices was one such ritual for choosing the rajas. A horse was let loose to wander freely and it was guarded by the raja’s men. If the horse entered into the kingdoms of other rajas and they stopped it, they had to fight. If they allowed the horse to pass, it meant that they accepted that the raja who wanted to perform the sacrifice was stronger than them.
3. These rajas were then invited to the sacrifice, which was performed by specially trained priests. The raja who organized the sacrifice was recognized as being very powerful, and all those who came brought gifts for him.
4. In the rituals, the raja was a central figure. He had a special seat, a throne or a tiger skin. His charioteer, who was his companion in the battlefield and witnessed his adventures, chanted tale of his glory. On the occasion, wives and sons performed minor rituals, other kings participated as spectators, priest performed rituals, ordinary people and vaishya brought gifts.
5. In north India, many books composed in the area were drained by the Ganga and the Yamuna. These books are called later Vedic, because these were composed after the Rigveda. These were composed by priests. These books described how rituals were to be performed and rules about society.
6. There were several different groups in society at this time such as priests, warriors, farmers, herders, traders, craftspersons, labourers, fishing folk and forest people.
7. Some priests and warriors were rich as were some farmers and traders. Others, were poor.
8. The priests divided people into four groups, called Varnas’. These vamas are-Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas and Shudras. According to them, each varna had a different set of functions.
9. Brahmins were expected to study the Vedas, perform sacrifices and receive gifts.
10. Kshatriyas were the rulers. They were expected to fight battles and protect people.
11. Vaishyas were expected to be farmers, herders and traders.
12. Shudras were last who had to serve the other three groups and could not perform any sacrifice. Later, they were classified untouchables. The priests said that contact with these was polluting.
13. Both Shudras and women were not allowed to study the Vedas.
14. Rajas, who performed these big sacrifices, were now recognized as being rajas of janapadas rather them janas. The word Janapadas means jana+pada i.e. land where jana set its foot.
15. The old Janapadas are – Purana Quila (at Delhi), Hastinapur (near Meerut), Atrajikhera (near Etah, UP).
16. Archaeologists found that people lived in huts, and kept cattle as well as other animals. They also grew a variety of crops such as rice, wheat, barley, pulses, sugar cane, seasame and mustard.
17. They also made earthen pots. Some of them were grey in colour, others were red. One special type of
pottery found at these sites is known as Painted Grey Ware. These gray pots had painted designs, usually simple lines in geometric patterns.
18. Some janapadas became more important than others, and were known as mahajanapadas. Most mahajanapadas had a capital city. Many of these were fortified. This means that huge walls of wood, brick or stone were built around them.
19. Forts were built because people were afraid of attacks from other kings and needed protection. Some kings also wanted to show how rich and powerful they are by building really large, tall and impressive walls around their cities. People were controlled easily by kings due to fortification.
20. The new rajas now began maintaining armies. Soldiers were paid regular salaries and maintained by the king throughout the year.
21. They also started collecting regular taxes. Tax on crops was begun, that was V6th part of what was produced. This tax was called ‘bhaga’. Taxes on craftspersons were in form of labour. They had to work for a day in every month for the king. Herders also paid taxes in the form of animals and animals produce. There were also tax on goods that were brought and sold through trade. Hunters and gatherers also had to provide forest produce to the raja as tax.
22. Major changes occurred in the agriculture. One was the use of iron ploughshares. Second, people begun transplanting paddy. Generally, slave and landless people and labourers had to do this work.
23. Magadha was the most important mahajanapada. The Ganga and the Son flowed through Magadha. This was important for transportation, water supplies, making the land fertile.
24. Part of the Magadha was forested. Elephants lived in forest and could be captured and trained for armies. Forest also provided wood for building houses, carts and chariots. In this region, there were iron ore mines, which were used to make the tools and weapons.
25. Bimbisara, Ajatasattu, Mahapadma Nanda were the very powerful rulers of Magadha. Rajgir in Bihar was the capital of Magadha for several years. Later, the capital was shifted to Pataliputra present day Patna.
26. Alexander, who lived in Macedonia in Europe about 2300 years ago, wanted to conquer the world. He reached upto the bank of the Beas. When he wanted to march the further, his soldiers refused because they heard about the Indian kings and their armies, chariots and elephants.
27. Vajji, whose capital was Vaishali (Bihar) was under a different form of government, known as gana or sangha.
28. In a gana or sangha, there were not one, but many rulers. Sometimes, even when thousands of men ruled together, each one was known as a raja. These rajas performed rituals together. They also met in assemblies and decisions were taken through discussions and debates. However, women, dasas and kammakaras could not participate in these assemblies. Both the Buddha and Mahavira belonged to ganas or sanghas.
29. Around 2500 years ago, the people of Athens set up a form of government, which was called a democracy which lasted for about 200 years.
30. All the men over the age of 30 years were recognized as full citizens of Athens.
31. All citizens of Athens could attend the meetings of assembly that met at least 40 times a year.
32. Citizens were expected to serve in the army and the navy.
33. However, women of Athens were not considered citizens. Foreigners, who lived and worked in Athens, did not have rights as citizens. There were several thousand slaves in Athens, who worked in mines, fields, households and workshops and they were not treated as citizens.
Kingdoms, Kings and an Early Republic Class 6 CBSE Notes Important Terms
Raja: Raja was chosen by the Jana, later on, some men who performed very big sacrifices were recognized as rajas.
Ashvamedha: Around 3000 years ago, it was a ritual performed by the rajas. A horse was let loose to wander freely and it was guarded by the raja’s men. If the horse entered into other king’s kingdom and they allowed to pass the horse, it meant that the other raja accepted the raja, who wanted to perform the sacrifice, was stronger than them. And if horse was stopped by other rajas, they had to fight.
Varna: Varna’ is the group, described in Vedas. There are four groups of people that are – Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas and Shudras. These varnas are based on the birth.
Janapada: The land where the jana set the foot.
Mahajanapadas: Some janapadas became more important than the others and were known as mahajanapadas. These had a capital and most of them were fortified.
Fortification: Most of the capitals of mahajanapadas were fortified. The fortification a huge wall was built around the capital.
Army: Mahajanapadas appointed army for the first time. Army was for the purpose of battle and the wars with other rajas. Army men were always ready for the battle and they were also paid.
Tax: For the purpose of collecting money, objects and man hours tax were imposed on the public by the janapadas and mahajanapadas.
Transplantation: Transplantation is a process in which the crop is grown by a process from which a huge production of crops could be obtained.
Gana or sangha: ‘Gana’ means a group that has many members. Sangha means organization or association. Both these names are still used such as Asam Gana Parisad (a party name), Chhatra Sangha or Adhyapak Sangha or Karmchari Sangha etc.
Democracy: A form of government in which all people have equal rights.
Notes of History Class 6 Chapter 6 Time Period
About 3000 years ago: New kind of Rajas.
About 2500 years ago: Creation of Mahajanapadas.
Set up of democracy in Athens.
About 2300 years ago: Alexander’s invasion.
Composition of the Digha Nikaya (famous Buddhist book)
About 1500: End of the ganas or sanghas.