**FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING**

**Introduction – Introduction to Accounting**

**Preparation of Final Accounts**

- Preparation of final accounts
- Recording of business transaction basis of accounting
- Single entry system of bookkeeping
- Double entry system of bookkeeping
- Classification of accounts
- Rules of double entry or accounting rules
- Accounting cycle
- Journal
- Ledger
- Trial balance
- Income
- Expenditure
- Assets
- Liabilities
- Final accounts
- Trading account
- Profit and loss account
- Balance sheet
- Adjustments in financial accounting

**Fund Flow Statement**

- Introduction of fund flow statement
- Limitations of fund flow statement
- Steps in preparation of fund flow statement
- Problems and solutions fund flow statement

**Cash Flow Statement**

- Introduction cash flow statement
- Limitations of cash flow analysis
- Difference between cash flow analysis and flow fund analysis
- Steps preparation cash flow statement
- Problems and solutions cash flow statement

**Ratio Analysis**

- Ratio analysis significance of ratio analysis
- Advantages of ratio analysis
- Limitation of ratio analysis
- Classification of ratios
- Liquidity short term solvency ratios
- Long term solvency ratios
- Profitability ratios
- Activity or turnover ratios
- Leverage or capital structure ratios
- Test questions in ratio analysis
- Ratio analysis problems and solutions

**Fixed Assets and Depredation**

**Cost Accounting**

**Job Costing**

- Job costing
- Advantages of job order costing
- Limitations of job order costing
- Batch costing
- Test questions in job costing

**Process Costing**

- Introduction process costing
- Application of process costing
- Elements of production cost
- Differences between process costing and job costing
- Test questions in process costing

**Activity Based Costing**

**Inventory Pricing and Valuation**

- Introduction inventory pricing and valuation
- Techniques of inventory control
- Methods of valuation of inventories
- Test questions inventory pricing and valuation

**Standard Costing**

- Standard costing introduction
- Standard cost vs budgetary control
- Determination of standard costing
- Variance analysis
- Test questions in standard costing

**Management Accounting**

- Management accounting
- Objectives of management accounting
- Limitations of management accounting
- Differences between financial accounting and management accounting
- Differences between financial accounting and cost accounting
- Differences between cost accounting and management accounting
- Test questions management accounting

**Marginal Costing**

**Relevant Cost for Decision Making**

**Budget and Budgetary Control**

- Budget and budgetary control
- Objectives of budgeting
- Classification of budget
- Test questions budget and budgetary control

**Inflation Accounting**

- Limitations of historical accounting
- Approaches to the price level accounting
- Disadvantages of inflation accounting
- Test question inflation accounting
- Problems and solution inflation accounting

**Responsibility Accounting**

- Introduction to responsibility accounting
- Advantages of responsibility accounting
- Responsibility centres
- Transfer price
- Test questions responsibility accounting

**Financial Management**

- Introduction to financial management
- Functions of the financial management
- Test question financial management

**Dividend**

**Cost of Capital**

- Concept of cost of capital
- Importance of cost of capital in decision making
- Different types of costs related to the cost of capital
- Determination of cost of capital
- Test questions cost of capital

**Capital Structure**

- Capitalization meaning
- Theory of capital structure
- Formulas of valuation of firms
- Test questions of capital structure

**Working Capital**

- Concepts of working capital
- Advantages or importance of working capital
- Determinants of working capital or factors determining working capital
- Sources of working capital
- Forecasting techniques of working capital
- Test questions working capital

**Capital Budgeting**

- Concept of capital expenditure
- Procedure for calculation
- Capital rationing
- Test question of capital budgeting

**Chapter 1: Introduction to Operations Research**

- Learning objectives and chapter outline
- Introduction detailed history of operations research
- Management systems
- Important features of operation research
- Types of operation research models
- Methodology of operation research
- Tools of operation research
- Important application of operation research
- Pitfalls in the use of operations research for decision making
- Some applications of linear programming
- Review and discussion questions limitations of operations research

**Limitations of Operations Research**

- Limitations of operations research
- Transportation models
- Capital budgeting models
- Blending models
- Tipson formulating linear programming models
- Graphical solutions

**Chapter 2: Linear Programming – II**

- Linear programming learning objectives and outline of chapter
- Introduction linear programming
- Formulation of linear programming problem
- Assumptions for resolving linear programming problems
- Potential applications of linear programming problems

**CHAPTER 3: Learning Objectives**

**Chapter 4: Linear Programming – III**

- Duality in linear programming
- Duality in linear programming lpp
- Dual problems when primal in standard form
- Interpreting primal dual optimal solutions
- Dual simplex method
- Revised simplex method

**Chapter 5: The Transportation Problems**

- Learning objectives
- Transportation model
- Assumptions of transportation model
- North west corner rule
- Row minima method
- Column minima method
- Least cost method
- Vogels approximation method vam
- Performing optimality test
- The stepping stone method
- The modified distribution modi method or uv method

**Chapter 6: Assignment Model**

- Learning objectives and chapter outline in assignment model
- Introduction assignment model
- Definition of assignment model
- Solution of assignment problems

**PROBLEMS **

The travelling salesman problem

**Chapter 7: The Sequencing Problems**

- Learning objectives the transportation problems
- Learning objectives and chapter outline in sequencing problems
- Preface to sequencing problems
- Terminologies commonly used in sequencing problems
- Assumptions made while solving sequencing problems
- Classification of sequencing problems
- N jobs one machine case
- Rule of shortest processing time spt
- Wspt
- Priority sequencing guidelines
- Sequencing jobs through two machines
- N jobs 3 machine case
- Two jobs m machine case

**Sequencing problem as assignment problem**

**Chapter 8: Replacement theory**

- Replacement theory learning objectives and chapter outline
- Replacement theory introduction
- Replacement of goods which degrades with time without considering any change in value of money
- Replacement policy of machinery whose operating cost auguments with time and its value for money also changes at a constant rate with time
- Replacement policy for equipment which suddenly fails
- Replacement policy for equipment which suddenly fails individual replacement policy
- Replacement policy
- Group replacement policy
- Manpower replacement policy staffing policy

**Chapter 9: Waiting line (queuing) theory**