## NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Maths Chapter 3 Pair of Linear Equations in Two Variables Ex 3.1

NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Mathematics Chapter 3 Pair of Linear Equations in Two Variables Ex 3.1 are part of NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Maths. Here we have given NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Mathematics Chapter 3 Pair of Linear Equations in Two Variables Ex 3.1.

 Board CBSE Textbook NCERT Class Class 10 Subject Maths Chapter Chapter 3 Chapter Name Pair of Linear Equations in Two Variables Exercise Ex 3.1 Number of Questions Solved 3 Category NCERT Solutions

## NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Maths Chapter 3 Pair of Linear Equations in Two Variables Ex 3.1

Ex 3.1 Class 10 Question 1.
Aftab tells his daughter, “Seven years ago, I was seven times as old as you were then. Also, three years from now, I shall be three times as old as you will be.” (Isn’t this interesting)? Represent this situation algebraically and graphically.
Solution:
Let present age of Aftab = x years and present age of Aftab’s daughter = y years.

1st Condition :
Seven years ago
x – 7 = 7(y – 7)
⇒ x – 7 = 7y – 49
⇒ x – 7y = – 42
Table :

2nd Condition :
Three years later,
x + 3 = 3(y + 3)
x + 3 = 3y + 9
x – 3y = 6
Table :

Thus, the algebraic equations are
x – 7y + 42 = 0 and x – 3y – 6 = 0

Math Class 10 Ex 3.1 Question 2.
The coach of a cricket team buys 3 bats and 6 balls for ₹ 3900. Later, she buys another bat and 3 more balls of the same kind for ₹ 1300. Represent this situation algebraically and geometrically.
Solution:
Let cost of one bat = ₹ x
and the cost of one ball = ₹y
A.T.Q.
1st Condition :
3x + 6y = 3900
Table :

2nd Condition :
x + 3y = 1300
Table :

Thus, the algebraic equations are 3x + 6y = 3900 and x + 3y – 1300

Class 10 Maths Chapter 3 Question 3.
The cost of 2 kg of apples and 1 kg of grapes on a day was found to be ₹ 160. After a month, the cost of 4 kg of apples and 2 kg of grapes is ₹ 300. Represent the situation algebraically and geometrically.
Solution:
Let cost of one kg of apples = ₹ x and the cost of one kg of grapes = ₹y

A.T.Q.
1st Condition :
2x + y = 160
Table :

2nd Condition :
4x + 2y = 300
Table :

Thus, algebraic situations are 2x + y = 160 and 4x + 2y = 300

We hope the NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Mathematics Chapter 3 Pair of Linear Equations in Two Variables Ex 3.1 help you. If you have any query regarding NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Mathematics Chapter 3 Pair of Linear Equations in Two Variables Ex 3.1, drop a comment below and we will get back to you at the earliest.

## CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Home Science Paper 5

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Home Science Paper 5 are part of CBSE Sample Papers for class 12 Home Science. Here we have given CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Home Science Paper 5.

## CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Home Science Paper 5

 Board CBSE Class XII Subject Home Science Sample Paper Set Paper 5 Category CBSE Sample Papers

Students who are going to appear for CBSE Class 12 Examinations are advised to practice the CBSE sample papers given here which is designed as per the latest Syllabus and marking scheme as prescribed by the CBSE is given here. Paper 5 of Solved CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Home Science is given below with free PDF download solutions.

Time: 3 Hours
Maximum Marks: 70

General Instructions:
There are total 25 questions. All questions are compulsory.

• Question nos  1-6 are of 1 mark, to be answered in one or two lines.
• Question nos 7-13 are of 2 marks, to be answered in 10-20 words.
• Question nos 14-15 case study and picture based are of 3 marks.
• Question nos 16-21 are of 4 marks, to be answered in 40 words.
• Question nos 22-25 are of 5 marks, to be answered in 50-60 words.

Questions

Question 1.
Why is friction method not used to wash woollen clothes?

Question 2.
Sometimes economic aspect becomes a hazard in marital adjustment. How does it affect the marital relations?

Question 3.
Games play an important role in cognitive development. How do they inculcate the social values in the adolescents?

Question 4.
Sudha is suffering from fever and is feeling quite weak. She cannot rely on normal diet.Recommend her the kind of food she must take.

Question 5.
Peer pressure leads to stress in teenagers as they try to behave in a certain way due to pressure coming from their peers. What are the factors that make teenagers succumb to this pressure?

Question 6.
State incubation period for polio and measles.

Question 7.
To ensure accuracy in length, what four points would you check while buying fabric from a shopkeeper?

Question 8.
What are the specific symptoms of polio?

Question 9.
Anorexia Nervosa is the most common eating disorder found in the society. Enlist some of its symptoms.

Question 10.
Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) Scheme is an effort in the direction of human development in terms of providing facilities for the well-being of mother and new bom child. State the importance of ICDS for a lactating mother.

Question 11.
Mrs. Rita has two daughters, one of is two years old while the elder sibling is of ten years. What would be the different duties of Rita for her different age group daughters.

Question 12.
What do you mean by Bonds (financial)?

Question 13.
Pooja is an aware and conscious child of eight years. She accompanies her working mother to select a creche for her three year old brother. What four features is she most likely to desire in a creche for the well-being of her sibling?

Question 14.
Gangu Bai soaked some clothes including her silk saree in a tub. After sometime, when she took out her saree from the tub to wash, she was surprised to see red patches on it. What are the reasons behind these patches? Suggest Gangu Bai some other ways to apply while washing clothes on a daily basis.

Question 15.
Identify the following activity and write both the benefits and drawbacks of this method.

Question 16.
What sort of disease is measles? Describe some specific symptoms of measles which enable you to diagnose it.

Question 17.
Illustrate four ways each of creating emphasis and harmony in a dress.

Question 18.
Your brother works in a bank and wants to invest one lakh rupees. Suggest him any two schemes which are safe and also provide tax rebate. Mention four other features of each of these two schemes.

Question 19.
Why do most people prefer to use detergents for washing their clothes?

Question 20.
Readymade garments have acquired immense popularity due to various factors. Give a brief description of these factors.

Question 21.
If clothes are a means of projecting one’s personality in the positive light and boosting self-confidence, then it becomes imperative to select and keep clothes properly. Suggest some ways by which maximum benefits can be derived from clothes.

Question 22.
Define depression. What are the causes, symptoms and treatment of depression?

Question 23.
A family’s total monthly income is ten thousand rupees. List all the points that can possibly influence the expenditure of this family.

Question 24.
The decisive steps taken by the government for consumer protection like Right to Information and Right to Basic Needs are steps in the right direction. How does government ensure that these rights are adequately met?

Question 25.
Mr Sharma lives in a joint family comprising of different individuals. Each member has its own particular nutritional needs according to their age, gender, occupation, health status etc. Explain how their meal planning is affected by it.

Woollen clothes have rough scaly surface and if these scales overlap each other, they get entangled which leads to felting. Therefore friction method is not used to wash woollen clothes.

When the economic status of a partner does not match with another partner, especially if the responsibilities are more and money is limited, it affects the marital relations in negative way.

Cognitive skills develop in adolescent when they play games with patience, responsibility and co-operation. Other skills like loyality, leadership traits also develop when they play games in group.

When suffering from fever, Sudha should take high calorie diet and bland or non-spicy foods. Like soups, barley water, lemon water, porridge, custard, pudding, milk foods etc.

The factors like the need for approval, acceptance and the need to have a sense of belonging cause teenagers to succumb to this pressure.

The polio incubation period can be as short as 4 days or as long as 35 days and measles has 8 to 14 days with encephalitis 7 to 10 days after symptoms develop.

While buying fabric from a shopkeeper, a buyer should check the following points to ensure accuracy in length

• Always ensure that the measurement scale is properly marked and has ISI mark.
• Measuring rod shouldn’t be bent or broken.
• Ensure that shopkeeper does not stretch cloth while measuring.
• He should cut the fabric as per the exact measurement.

Polio is a highly contagious disease caused by a virus that attacks the nervous system. Childern younger than 5 years old are more likely to contract the virus than any other group mild fever, pain all over the body, rigidity to the neck, the limbs become loose, facial paralysis, and squiting of eyes.

Symptoms of Anorexia Nervosa are listed below

• Intense fear of gaining weight even when losing weight.
• Counting calories, grams of fat in diet.
• In females, absence of menstrual cycles without another cause.
• Rapid or excessive weight loss.

The importance of Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) Scheme for a lactating mother are as follows

1. It will give her knowledge about the immunisation programme of her child.
2. She will get knowledge about balanced diet, weaning foods and child care.
3. It will promote breast feeding.
4. It gives instructions on post-natal care.

Both the childrens have different nutritional and educational priorities. For two years daughter she has to take care for his health and nutritional values while ten years old girl i.e. school going to take care for her education and health.

Bonds are debentures which are issued by government or government company. On liquidation (closing) of the company, the creditor is secured and the investor gets his money back.

In the creche of a three years old brother, one will look for the following four facilities

1. Hygienic environment
2. Trained staff
3. First aid facility
4. Comfortable sleeping space

The reasons behind the red patches on the saree are as follows

• Soaking of silk saree led to the appearance of patches on it. Silk clothes should not be soaked, they should be washed immediately.
• Gangu Bai might have soaked clothes in hot water and colour leaked.
• She might have soaked clothes in a strong detergent with bleaching agents in it, which caused leakage of colour.

Following precautions need to be applied while washing clothes

• Delicate clothes should be washed separately.
• Light coloured and dark coloured clothes should be soaked separately.
• Quality detergents should be used for washing clothes.
• Use mild soaps and detergents for silk and woollen

In the above figure, boiling method of making water safe for drinking is shown.
Some of its benefits and drawbacks are given below

• Benefits It is a simple method as we can easily do it at home and it does not require any special equipment. Solid substances, hardness and salinity of water can be destroyed through boiling.
• Drawbacks This method is quite time consuming as it takes much time to boil water and then cool it before using. Fuel is required in large amount for this method. This method makes water tasteless and it is cumbersome to boil a large amount of water

Measles is an infection of the respiratory system, immune system and skin caused by a virus. Children are usually affected by this disease.
Hence, for proper diagnosis, it is required to know the common symptoms which are as given below

• Cough with running nose.
• Fever with a feeling of chill.
• Inflamed eyes, very sensitive to light.
• Small red eruptions on face.
• Swelling of nose and eyes.
• Difficulty in swallowing.

Following are the four ways of creating emphasis in a dress

1. To create emphasis, buttons, lace, belt etc of contrasting and dark colours may be used.
2. Unusual shapes of collars, buttons and pockets etc also create emphasis.
3. To emphasise necklines, cuffs or any other part of a garment, these areas should be decorated with embroidery, lace, trims, applique, buttons etc.
4. Emphasis can be achieved by continuing changing in intensity from bright to dull.

The four ways of creating harmony in a dress are

1. Unity in dress can be achieved by repeated use of lines and shapes.
2. There should be unity in texture.
3. The prints on different areas such as sleeves, pocket etc should align with those on the body.
4. The style lines should be consistent. Energy area of a garment should match its coordinating garment.

Investment is time, energy or matter spent in the hope of future benefits and in order to gain safety and tax rebate. Hence, Public Provident Fund (PPF) and schemes by LIC (Life Insurance Corporation) are the two ways of investment which give more benefit and tax rebate.
The following are the features of the Public Provident Fund

• It gives high rate of interest.
• Premature withdrawal is allowed.
• Its interest is tax free.
• It gives loan facility.

Following are the features of LIC

• Easy and low premium installments,
• It gives a security to the family and future,
• Its interest is tax free.
• It allows the loan facility.

A detergent has cleaning properties in dilute solutions. People prefer to use it because of the following reasons

1. It saves time and energy.
2. Detergents do not leave deposits on the fabrics.
3. Optical brighteners and bleaches present in detergent make fabric bright and white.
4. They do not combine with the calcium and magnesium salts of hard water due to the presence of the polar sulfonate of the detergent.
5. It readily dissolves in both cold and hot water.
6. It needs less water for rinsing clothes.
7. Clothes washed in detergents give good aroma after wash.
8. It is more effective against body acids and perspiration.

1. The readymade garments don’t need stitching time, designing, styling skills etc.
2. In today’s fast paced life, everyone is hard pressed for time. So, most of the families resort to purchasing readymade clothing.
4. They are easy to wear, wash and maintain, that’s why consumers prefer readymade garments.
5. Readymade garments give an option of trial for fitting before purchase.
6. Readymade garments have more design options and variety of colour pattern.
7. The desire for more clothes among consumers is also a reason for popularity of readymade garments.
8. Readymade garments are designed according to the latest fashion so, youngsters prefer them.

In order to get maximum benefit out of clothes in terms of enhancing one’s personality and confidence, one should always keep the following points in mind

1. While purchasing clothes, one should consider its affordability, suitability to one’s personality, durability and comfortableness.
2. Colour of skin, hair and eyes should also be considered.
3. Size and shape of one’s body should also be a criterion while selecting clothes.
4. One can select the clothes according to fashion but it should not be blindly followed.
5. The clothes should also be according to occasion and weather.
6. Proper upkeep of clothes is essential because if the proper care is not taken, the clothes lose their attraction.
7. The defects like open seams and loose buttons should be mended on time.
8. Washing and handling should be done according to the kind of fabric.

Depression It is the state of feeling low and aversion to activity. It can affect a person’s thought, behaviour, feelings and sense of well-being. It creates a constant feeling of sadness and lack of interest. Depressed adolescents feel sad, anxious, hopeless, worthless, guilty and hurt. They lose interest in the activities which were once pleasurable to them. They face problem in decision-making and concentrating. Depression can lead to emotional and physical problems.
Causes of Depression Some of the causes of depression are listed below

2. They are not comfortable with the fast changes that are taking place in their body.
3. They are not able to accept their physique and feel awkward as they are obese or too skinny.
4. When they feel their parents or teachers have high expectations from them and they can’t cope up with it.

Symptoms of Depression Some common symptoms of depression are as follows

1. Constant feeling of sadness and emptiness.
2. Adolescent feels hopeless and restless.
3. Becomes pessimistic.
4. Loss of appetite.

Treatment of Depression As soon as the symptoms are seen, treatment should start.

1. Professional treatment from doctor should be taken as it reduces the chances of re-occurrence.
2. Parents and teachers should not put too much responsibility if they feel that adolescent is unsure of himself.
3. They should be praised and encouraged for their small achievement.
4. They should be encouraged to take up creative hobbies.
These measures will help the adolescents to adjust in the changed environment.

Many factors that influence the expenditure of the family are given below

• Size of Family A large family will spend more on their living and basic needs than a small family.
• Composition of Family A family comprises of individuals of different age groups. A family with school and college going children spends more on education whereas a family with old age members spends more on medicines.
• Place of Residence Urban families have higher expenditure than those living in rural areas.
• Family Type A joint family has some common things to share like same house, car etc. So, their family expenditure on housing mobility goes down.
• Family Values Value system in a family is one of the most influencial things. A family which values education, will spend more on buying books.

The Right to Information (RTI) is the government’s grievance redressal mechanism through which the government ensures the provision of information about the quality, standard, quantity, purity, price of goods and services. It gives detailed information through labels/leaflets/booklets in order to protect the consumer against the unfair trade practices.
The steps taken by the government in this regard are

• Issuing warning along with advertisement of toxic products, e.g. Cigarette smoking is injurious to health.
• Deceptive packaging prohibition.
• Ensuring that information regarding prices and content is clearly marked out on the packets.

Whereas, The Right to Basic Needs guarantees dignified livelihood which includes adequate food, clothing, health care, drinking water, sanitation, shelter, education, energy and transportation.
The steps taken by government to safeguard consumer rights are given below

• Provision of health care facilities.
• Provision of safe drinking water.
• Provision of low cost housing scheme, e.g. Indira Awas Yojana Scheme.
• Provision of rations at subsidised rates for low income families.

Joint family consists of individuals of different age, gender, occupation “and people with special requirements arising due to pregnancy or fever. Care has to be taken in meal planning to meet the nutritional needs of each member.
It affects meal planning in the following ways

• Age If a family consists of children of 6 to 9 months, then mashed, blend and easily digestible food should be planned. For school going children, protein, calcium and iron-rich food is planned and for adults, iron-rich food is planned.
• Gender A male requires more nutrients than a female.
• Occupation Nature of work defines the requirement of calorie in a person. A person who does heavy work requires more calories than sedentary and moderate workers.
• To Meet Specific Needs If there is a pregnant or lactating woman in a family, she needs more calories, proteins, calcium, iron, folic acid and vitamins. Similarly, family members suffering from fever, diarrhoea need more digestible proteins, carbohydrates, liquids etc.
• Number of Family Members It is important to note that how many members are planning meal and also how many persons are included in meal planning.

We hope the CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Home Science Paper 5 help you. If you have any query regarding CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Home Science Paper 5, drop a comment below and we will get back to you at the earliest.

## CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Home Science Paper 3

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Home Science Paper 3 are part of CBSE Sample Papers for class 12 Home Science. Here we have given CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Home Science Paper 3.

## CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Home Science Paper 3

 Board CBSE Class XII Subject Home Science Sample Paper Set Paper 3 Category CBSE Sample Papers

Students who are going to appear for CBSE Class 12 Examinations are advised to practice the CBSE sample papers given here which is designed as per the latest Syllabus and marking scheme as prescribed by the CBSE is given here. Paper 3 of Solved CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Home Science is given below with free PDF download solutions.

Time: 3 Hours
Maximum Marks: 70

General Instructions:
There are total 25 questions. All questions are compulsory.

• Question nos  1-6 are of 1 mark, to be answered in one or two lines.
• Question nos 7-13 are of 2 marks, to be answered in 10-20 words.
• Question nos 14-15 case study and picture based are of 3 marks.
• Question nos 16-21 are of 4 marks, to be answered in 40 words.
• Question nos 22-25 are of 5 marks, to be answered in 50-60 words.

Questions.

Question 1.
Some boys are going for trekking. Which method of water purification should they follow?

Question 2.
As a subject of study, Home Science provides knowledge about various skills. What is its specific concern?

Question 3.
Economic status has a great effect on cognitive development. Explain the statement in brief.

Question 4.
Name the elements of art used in dress making.

Question 5.
What do you understand by standardised marks?

Question 6.
While buying food products, cleanliness and quality are given the first priority,otherwise it may lead to health problems. How can it be ensured?

Question 7.
Mohit is suffering from severe cough and vomitings. Name the possible disease, he could be suffering from. Write two important points for Mohit’s mother should keep in mind while looking after him.

Question 8.
Adolescence is a period when significant level of emotional stress is there. State any two causes of this stress.

Question 9.
Ramesh was cheated by a dealer who influenced him to buy a sub-standard AC. After some days Ramesh is very disappointed because AC is not working effectively. State the way in which his loss could be compensated.

Question 10.
One of your friends has a keen interest in clothing and textile industry. She wants to start her own business in the same field. Suggest her two ways in order to establish her business

Question 11.
Milk scores above all other food items, when it comes to provide nourishment and is considered a complete food. Why?

Question 12.
What do you understand by consumer aids? Give a list of some consumer aids

Question 13.
Washing clothes with detergents is easy comparatively washing with soaps. How will you define detergents?

Question 14.
Raghu is suffering from paralysis due to which he is not able to work any more. During the treatment, doctor ascribed it to some adulterant in his food. Can you name this adulterant?
Write two symptoms that can be seen in Raghu and also mention some ways to prevent purchasing adulterated food.

Question 15.
How will you describe the following figure briefly?

Question 16.
Intoxication is a curse that harms the entire prospects of teenagers. Enumerate various ways in which its bad effects are manifested.

Question 17.
Maintaining a household account is quite advantageous for welfare of a family. Write some of the benefits of keeping household accounts.

Question 18.
18. Two friends, Neha and Ria bought some edible ingredients for their cookery classes. Neha bought loose/unpacked items while Ria bought the product bearing a well marked label. In what way, Ria will be better informed than Neha about the product.

Question 19.
Selection of clothes reveals a great deal about a man’s values and culture and is an effective barometer to judge his personality. Explain and justify the assertion.

Question 20.
Woollen clothes require a proper care while washing them. Explain the method of washing woollen clothes in context of the given statement.

Question 21.
Due to intense work pressure at home and office, working women sometimes suffer from stress that results in hypertension. Define hypertension. What are its symptoms that can help in diagnosing the problem?

Question 22.
‘Keeping kitchen clean and clear is as important as our body.” Justify this statement

Question 23.
Give reason behind the supplementation of family income and mention any four factors affecting the supplementation of family income.

Question 24.
Inclusion of a food for nutrition is based on a plethora of factors. Write a short note on the factors which are behind food selection by families

Question 25.
What is investment? Describe three points that should be kept in mind while selecting an appropriate method of investment.

They should use chlorine tablets to disinfect water as it is easy to carry them while travelling.

The specific concern of the subject Home Science is the knowledge about home and its management.

Better economic status gets more opportunities and better training which helps in better cognitive development.

Line, colour and texture are the elements of art used in dress making.

Our government has fixed some minimum standards. Products which confirm to these standards are found to be of good quality after certain tests are given standardised marks.

To ensure that food products are safe and of good quality, purchase food products only from reliable and recognised shops.

Mohit is suffering from pertussis (whooping cough). Mohit’s mother should keep the child warm, avoid exercise and provide treatment as prescribed by the doctor.

Adolescents undergo high level of stress due to the following reasons

1. Due to physical changes, emotionality of the young adolescent is greatly influenced and this causes stress.
2. Adolescence is the period when adolescents worry about their future. They are not sure of their capabilities and remain under stress continuously.

Ramesh’s loss can be compensated by seeking a redressal in the consumer court. For this, he needs to follow the proper’procedure of filing a complaint. If his complaint is proved to be genuine, his grievance will be answered and he will be duly compensated for his loss.

She can adopt following ways in order to start her own business

• She can sell suits and dupattas of latest fashion by opening her own boutique.

Milk is considered a complete food because all nutrients are present in right proportion in it, except Vitamin C and iron.

• Consumer Aids Aids which guide consumers in selecting quality goods according to their requirements are known as consumer aids.
• Form of Consumer Aids Standardised marks, labels and advertisements are some form of consumer aids

Detergents are carbon compounds which are not alkaline. They are cleaning agents and absorbents. They are used to clean soft and delicate clothes. Thats why washing clothes with detergents is easy comparatively washing with soaps.

The name of the adulterant is kesari dal or Lathyrus sativus.

• Symptoms
• Raghu has pain in his ankle joints.
• Raghu’s knees have become stiff.
• Prevention
• Only sealed packets should be bought.
• Buy food with standard mark/Agmark.
• Do not buy open pulses or cereals.
• Buy products only of reputed company or reputed brand.

This is the picture of a solar cooker. It works on solar energy. It consists of several parts which are helpful to make it work. This cooker traps the heat insideit through which the food is cooked. It takes longer time.

These days, most of the teenagers are indulged in the consumptions of intoxicants. Effects of such habits are really very bad.
Some bad effects of intoxicants on teenagers are mentioned below

1. The adolescent loses self-confidence and control over himself.
2. Ability to think and reason is also affected.
3. The adolescent starts losing the ability to take decision and shirks responsibility.
4. Both mental and physical stamina is adversely affected.
5. Liver is also damaged due to the consumption of intoxicants.
6. The effect of drugs makes the adolescents feel very light and forget all his problems for a short • while, but ultimately the drugs make the body weak and hollow.
7. Adolescents consuming intoxicants don’t give proper attention to their studies.
8. They become a part of bad company and lose their values.

Advantages of keeping household accounts are listed below

1. By keeping household accounts, it is easier to spend money. By this, one can be informed about the money that has been spent on different things.
2. Accounting helps in avoiding disputes regarding payments. Shopkeeper cannot cheat anyway if
the purchases are made on credit. One is aware of the goods purchased, payment made and the balance left. .
3. It helps in checking the expenditure incurred in one month with that of the other month. The checks can be applied if the expenditure exceeds in a month as compared to the previous month.
4. Accounting helps in judicious spending and savings by families for future incidental expenses.
5. The habit of keeping accounts by parents helps children develop the habit of judicious spending.

A label informs the consumer about the quality and method of its usage. Label is engraved, printed or pasted on the package (i.e. bottle, container, packets etc) of the product. Bureau of Indian Standard has fixed certain standards for a complete label.
A product with a complete label provides valuable information to the consumer regarding

1. Name of the product.
2. Ingredients of the product.
3. Weight and quality of the final product.
4. Date of manufacture.
5. Date of expiry.
6. Price of product.

Selection of clothes should be very judicious so that we can buy best clothes by spending minimum amount of money. The clothes should be compatible with age, personality and climate, and should not be an hindrance in normal working. Some factors affect the selection of clothes, which may vary from person to person as they are influenced by the requirement of the person.
These factors are discussed below

1. The personal value and culture of a person can be judged easily from his dress.
2. Clothes highlight the salient features of the personality and camouflaging the figure flaws to some extent.
3. Improper dressing makes person a laughing stock and causes inferiority complex. On the other hand, proper dressing helps in building self-confidence which is essential for the proper development of personality.
4. Proper dressing affects our behaviour and mannerism, and develops harmony and personality.

The method of washing woollen clothes is listed below

1. Preparation Before washing, the clothes should be dusted with brush and repairing should be done. Mild detergent recommended for woollen clothes should be chosen. Clothes should be traced on a brown paper.
2. Soaking Clothes should be soaked for 10-15 minutes. They should be washed in lukewarm water. The brush should not be used. They should be rubbed lightly.
3. Rinsing Clothes should be property rinsed and water should be removed by pressing between palms. Clothes should not be squeezed
4. Drying Clothes should be dried in shade and spread on the brown paper to retain their shape. Clothes should not be hanged otherwise they will lose their shape.
5. Finishing After drying, clothes should be steam-pressed. Clothes should be ironed by applying water through cloth pad to give them good finish.

Hypertension Regular flow of blood from heart in the body is due to diastolic and systolic pressure of heart. If there is any obstruction in the flow of the blood, then heart has to pump the blood with more force causing high blood pressure. This state is known as hypertension.
Symptoms of hypertension am as follows

• Giddiness, gastritis, nausea and vomiting.
• Indigestion
• Psychological disorders
• General yveakness

Cleanliness in the kitchen is very essential for preventing the contamination of food. Food cooked in an unhygienic kitchen is not suitable for consumption. Cockroaches, lizards, flies etc abound in a damp and dirty kitchen. All these factors make the food unhygienic and contaminated in one way or the other.
Given below am some ways which can help to keep kitchen dean

1. Clean kitchen daily to keep insects and pests away.
2. Few hours of sunlight in the kitchen are needed to remove the dampness besides killing some bacteria.
3. Kitchen doors and windows should be flyproof and hence have mesh on them.
4. Also ensure the sufficient supply of potable water in the kitchen with proper drainage system.
5. There should be proper system of ventilation in the kitchen.

It is very difficult for middle income group to fulfil all the requirements and needs of the family and maintain a general level of living standard. In order to improve economic resources, therp is a need to supplement family income.
Following am some factors which affect the supplementation of family income

• To Fulfil the Basic Needs of Family Money is needed to fulfil the basic needs and other comforts of life. But it is difficult to meet these expenses in limited income. Day-by-day, prices rise but the income remains same. So, to improve the financial status, it is necessary to supplement the family income.
• To Ensure Savings For security and to meet incidental expenses like marriage, higher education and illness, monthly saving is required. But due to inflation, it has become difficult to save after meeting family expenses.
• To Raise the Standard of Living Everybody wants to enjoy luxuries and comforts of life. He wants . to maintain a high standard of living. For this, he needs to supplement his family income.
• To Secure Future Every person wants to ensure a secure future for his family. At the time of unexpected happenings, saved money proves to be helpful. So, one needs to supplement his family income to have an assurance of secure future.

The important basis for food nutrition is the selection of various food products. Therefore, inclusion of such foods in diet is must for the family and their satisfaction.
Following are some factors that are responsible for the selection of food

1. Family Food Values The inclusion of any food product is based on the food values of the family. Some particular kind of food preferred by one family may be obnoxious to the other.
2. Availability of Foodstuffs Availability of most of the foodstuffs especially fruits and vegetables depends on the season. Seasonal foods are nutritive and inexpensive.
3. Economic Ability The selection of foods depends on the economic ability of a family to a large extent. If the income of the family is not very high, it becomes little difficult to include high quality foods in diet as it is of high price.
4. Culture Selection of food is affected by religion, caste and culture as people belonging to Punjabi culture prefer to eat ‘Makki di Roti te Sarson da Saag’. Rice and fish is eaten by the Bengalis.
5. Effect of Peer Group Acceptance by friends and acquaintances greatly affects the choice of foods, specially in adolescents. Some foods are eaten only because these are consumed by the “peer group.

Investment It is all about securing the future and it requires the detailed information of various sources of investment through the persons who have knowledge and experience in the field.
Investment of money is a very delicate matter, so one should take care of the following points

1. Safety of Principal Amount Investment is a money spent in the hope of future benefit and for this the principal amount should be secured and invested in multiple schemes rather than in only one.
2. Profit and Risk in Investments It should ensure adequate return and return on investment should be in proportion to the risk factors. At personal level, money transaction may fetch higher profit, but the chances of getting back the principal amount along with interest are less comparatively.
3. Liquidity It refers to the availability of the investment at the time of requirement without any depreciation. Principle of liquidity is very important to investor because when he will need money is uncertain.

We hope the CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Home Science Paper 3 help you. If you have any query regarding CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Home Science Paper 3, drop a comment below and we will get back to you at the earliest.

## CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Home Science Paper 2

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Home Science Paper 2 are part of CBSE Sample Papers for class 12 Home Science. Here we have given CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Home Science Paper 2.

## CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Home Science Paper 2

 Board CBSE Class XII Subject Home Science Sample Paper Set Paper 2 Category CBSE Sample Papers

Students who are going to appear for CBSE Class 12 Examinations are advised to practice the CBSE sample papers given here which is designed as per the latest Syllabus and marking scheme as prescribed by the CBSE is given here. Paper 2 of Solved CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Home Science is given below with free PDF download solutions.

Time: 3 Hours
Maximum Marks: 70

General Instructions:
There are total 25 questions. All questions are compulsory.

• Question nos  1-6 are of 1 mark, to be answered in one or two lines.
• Question nos 7-13 are of 2 marks, to be answered in 10-20 words.
• Question nos 14-15 case study and picture based are of 3 marks.
• Question nos 16-21 are of 4 marks, to be answered in 40 words.
• Question nos 22-25 are of 5 marks, to be answered in 50-60 words.

Questions.

Question 1.
What is meal planning?

Question 2.
State the importance of diet therapy.

Question 3.
A shopkeeper does not keep the products bearing FPO mark. In what way is he denying the assurance of quality products to his customers?

Question 4.
Ananya’s aunt sent her an expensive woollen sweater from New Zealand on her birthday. Give two tips to her for storing the sweater.

Question 5.
Following the rules of hygiene in handling food items is the best approach to ensure healthy food and life. How?

Question 6.
Give example of behavioural and mental processes that prove their importance in human development

Question 7.
The education given to disabled children should be such that which enables them to be independent. How can this be ensured?

Question 8.
Write four disadvantages of a situation where a 6 years old girl is taking care of her younger sibling.

Question 9.
There is considerable difference between Direct and Indirect income. Explain this distinction by giving an example of each.

Question 10.
Babita is a house wife. She wants to save fuel by meal planning. Suggest her some ways of doing this.

Question 11.
List two characteristics of blended polyesters that make them suitable for rainy season.

Question 12.
Mention four advantages of opening a recurring deposit account for two years.

Question 13.
Audio-visual methods play a prominent role educating the handicapped children. State how?

Question 14.
Your friend wants to invest some money for his higher education. Suggest ways of investment in which he can get money back after six years. Write three advantages of any two schemes.

Question 15.
Identify the standardisation marks given in the following pictures.

Question 16.
With growing age, some physical changes also take place in the body of males. What are the physical changes that are observed in male adolescents?

Question 17.
What is cholera? Give some points to prevent the spread of cholera.

Question 18.
The rights of consumers enable them to fight against the exploitation and seek legal remedies. Give an analysis of the statement by relating some rights of the consumers.

Question 19.
Write the procedure for removing any two of the following stains.
(i) Ink stain from white cotton
(ii) Tea stain from coloured cotton
(iii) Blood stain from synthetics
(iv) An unknown stain

Question 20.
Riyani, a 16 years old girl, tried to commit suicide due to her failure in board exams for last two years. Recognise the state Riyani is undergoing. Define it in short and write its four common symptoms.

Question 21.
What is the difference between soaps and detergents?

Question 22.
Plan a day’s menu for an adult suffering from diarrhoea. Also make a list of practical considerations that you will keep in mind before planning the menu.

Question 23.

Question 24.
How knowledge and skills acquired in child care can help in supplementing the family income? Briefly explain any two ways.

Question 25.
Certain chemicals are used for the purification of water. Given below are some chemicals which are used for the same purpose. Explain them in short.
(i) Chlorine
(ii) Bleaching Powder

Meal planning is the planning of meals for all the members of the family in order to provide nutritious food on time according to their need and choice.

Diet therapy is the adaptation of the basic diet to meet particular needs due to illness and other specific conditions.

FPO mark specifies the minimum standards that must be maintained throughout the production powers such as manufacturing, processing etc. A product that does not bear this mark cannot give assurance of quality.

Points to be considered for storing a woollen sweater are as follows

• It should be dry cleaned before storing,
• Putinsect repellents in cupboards.

Unhygienic handling of food makes it contaminated and causes diseases. The safe handling of food items keeps it safe and free from all the contaminants.

Behavioural activities such as reading which is directly observable and mental process involving thoughts, emotion and motive play a prominent role in human development.

The most important thing to remember in teaching disabled children is to help them to learn maximum while at the same time encouraging their sense of independence and accomplishment. This enables them to be independent.

The four disadvantages arising out of such a situation are given below

1. She is not equipped with skills required for usual child rearing.
2. She is not mature enough to care for the young one.
3. She might become a school drop-out.
4. In case of emergency, she cannot meet the requirements of first-aid.

The difference between the direct and indirect income is as follows

 Direct Income Indirect Income Goods and facilities available in return of service, e.g. house, telephone facility, uniform from employer. Commodities and services are available by utilising the skills of family members e.g. skills in stitching clothes, teaching at home. Comprises of all those commodities and facilities which are available to the family without the use of money. Vegetables produced in the kitchen garden services rendered by family members like cooking repairing electrical appliances are included in indirect income.

Babita can save the fuel by meal planning in the following ways :

• She should cook food having simple recipes and avoid lengthy cooking procedure.
• Make maximum use of pressure cooker, which conserves a lot of fuel.

The blended polyesters viz terrycot or terry silk are most suitable for rainy season due to the following reasons

• Polyester or terrylene clothes dry easily and fast.
• This type of clothes are easy to maintain and remain wrinkle free.

There are many advantages of opening a recurring deposit account. Four of them are given below

1. It is a safe scheme.
2. It gives higher interest than saving accounts.
3. It develops the habit of regular savings.
4. Money can grow by adding small installments.

Audio-visual aids help the handicapped children to overcome their limitations to some extent as a blind child can learn by hearing sounds or by touching things.

He can invest in

1. NSC (National Savings Certificate)
2. KVP (Kisan Vikas Patra)
3. UC (Life Insurance Corporation)
4. Fixed Deposit
5. IDBI, ICICI
6. Money income schemes of post-office

Three advantages of two schemes are as given below

1. Money Income Schemes of Post-office
• Interest rate is high.
• Loan can be taken against it.
• No limit on investment.
2. LIC (Life Insurance Corporation)
• It gives loan facility.
• It provides future security.
• Its income is tax rebate.

1. ISI is a certification mark given by Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS). Indian Standard Institution ISI mark is given to Electrical goods, soaps, gas stove, powder, common salt, biscuits, mineral water, baking powder, milk powder etc. ISI develops consciousness among manufacturers and encourages them to produce quality products.
2. AG MARK This was set-up by Directorate of Marketing and Inspection of the Government of India. It establishes norms for agricultural and live stock products at natural and processed stages. AGMARK is given to Ghee, butter, oil, wheat flour, rice, jaggery, honey, spices, eggs, fruits, potatoes etc.

Physical changes that are observed in male adolescents with growing age are given below

1. Skin becomes oily, sometimes with pimples acne. ‘
2. Hair grow under arms, legs, chest and face.
3. Muscles in legs and arms get bigger and stronger.
4. Shoulders and chest start to broaden.
5. Hands, feet, arms and legs become larger.
6. Voice cracks and then deepens.
7. Perspiration increases and body odour may appear.
8. Ejaculation occurs during sexual climax.

Cholera It is a highly infectious disease. The digestive system of the person is affected due to this disease. People who ignore hygienic practices are more prone to this disease. If not treated properly, its mortality rate can go upto 70 per cent. It spreads mostly in summer. People of any age can lay up with this disease.
Precautions There are some points which should be followed to prevent this disease

1. Give boiled water to the patient.
2. Isolate the patient as it helps to prevent the spread of disease.
3. The room and washroom of the patient should be properly cleaned with disinfectant.
4. The food of the patient should always be covered.

The various rights given to consumers serve as tools in their hands to enable them to fight against exploitation and seek legal remedies. These rights widen the scope of consumer protection. A brief description of various acts will give a better understanding of the above statement.
The description are as follows

1. The Right to Safety This refers to protection against marketing of products and services that are harmful to life and property.
2. The Right to Choose or Right to be Assured This gives the right to consumers to attain goods and services of good quality at reasonable prices.
3. The Right to be Heard It ensures that consumer’s interests will get due consideration.
4. The Right to Redressed This right ensures the right to a fair settlement and compensation.
5. The Right to Consumer Education It enables a consumer to acquire knowledge and abilities to make wise decisions.
6. The Right to Information It provides information related to different aspects of goods and services.

1. Ink stain from white Cotton
• Rub the stain with lemon or tomato juice and salt or rub the stain with sour curd.
• Rinse well.
• Dry in sun.
2. Tea stain from coloured Cotton
• Soak in liquid detergent overnight and pour boiling water on the stain.
• Wash in normal way.
3. Blood stain from synthetic
• Soak in cold water and wash with mild ammonia.
• Rinse properly and dry in sun.
4. An unknown stain
• Soak the stain in warm soapy water.
• Use bleach on stain exposing it to sunlight.
• Treat the stain with diluted acid.
• Wash properly

Riyani is undergoing depression. It is the state of feeling low and aversion to activity. It creates a constant feeling of sadness and lack of interest. Depressed adolescents feel sad, anxious, hopeless, worthless, guilt and hurt. They face difficulty in decision-making and concentrating. They feel, life is not worth living.
Some common symptoms of depression are mentioned below
(i) Constant feeling of sadness and emptiness.
(ii) Lost of interest in activities and hobbies.
(iii) Adolescents feel hopeless and restless and become pessimistic.
(iv) Energy level becomes low and adolescent feels fatigue

Soap Soap is made by mixing fats and alkalis. Both vegetable and animal fats are used. Paraffin oil is also added to enhance its quality. This is available in the form of cakes, powder, flakes, jelly etc.
Detergents A large variety of detergents are available in the market these days. Washing is comparatively easy with detergents. These can be used both in cold and warm water.
Difference between Soaps and Detergents

 Soap Detergents Soaps are made from fat and alkali by saponification method. Detergents are carbonic compounds which are not alkaline. They are cheap. They are costly. They are not suitable for delicate clothes. They are suitable for delicate clothes. They clean better in hot water. They clean both in hot and cold water. More quantity of water is needed to remove soap They are removed very easily, so less quantity of from the cloth. water is needed.

Practical Considerations

1. Select food which is easy to digest.
2. Avoid fried, spicy and irritating foods.
3. Serve food which can be easily managed by the patient on bed.
4. Serve small portions at regular time intervals.
5. Serve attractive meals to boost up the appetite.
6. Serve freshly prepared food.
7. Provide enough liquids, specially water to avoid dehydration.
8. Avoid fibre rich foods.
9. Foods containing vinegar and mustard oil should be avoided.
10. Avoid foods which are either too hot or too cold.

Diet Plan

 Meal Menu Amount Early morning Tea 1 cup Breakfast Suji porridge 1 bowl Mid morning Vegetable soup 1 bowl Lunch Khichri and curd 1 plate and 1 bowl Tea time Tea and biscuits 1 cup and 2 biscuits Dinner Chapati, arhar dal and ghia vegetable 1 piece, 1 bowl and $$\frac { 1 }{ 2 }$$bowl

1. Buttons and Button Holes Metallic or plastic buttons should be attached and well secured. Extra button should also be provided. The size of the button hole should be according to the size of button. Button holes may be machine made or bound horizontal or vertical.
2. Seams It should be either plain finished with interlocking or French seam. Stitches of seams
should be small, equal and straight. The thread used in stitching should match the colour of the shirt. It should also be durable.
3. Collars The size of the collars should be appropriate. They should be neatly stitched. They should be stiff and not limping.
4. Placket It should be of uniform thickness and they should be neatly stitched. Length of the placket should also be adequate.
5. Matching Stitches It should be smooth, neat and continuous. Matching coloured and strong thread should be used.
6. Design If the cloth has design or pattern, then care should be taken that the print is uniform, stripes and checks are stitched at proper angles.
7. Hemming Stitches of hemming should be at short intervals and equal in size, the ends should be properly locked to avoid opening of seams, thread should be of fast colour and there should be margin for alterations.
8. Fashion Ensure that the shirt is of the latest fashion. It should match the lifestyle. But it should not be followed blindly.
9. Size It is essential to know the size of the garment before purchasing it. Readymade garments have different sizes. Gent’s shirts have chest size-40”, 42”, 46”.
10. Comfort The comfort of the shirt should be ensured while standing, sitting, walking etc. There , should not be any stiffness and looseness.

Knowledge and skills acquired in the child care can help in supplementing the family income by following ways

1. It helps to get employment in any care-centre.
2. It helps to get employment in nursery school or Anganwadi.
3. It helps in opening a play school or nursery school.
4. It helps in opening creche or day care.
5. It gives guidance in counselling of children.
6. It gives skills in providing guidance related to all over child care in terms of his developmental, psychological and nutritional needs.

Following are the two ways to supplement family income through these skills
Creche/Pre-Nursery School Start a good business proposition with the help of this knowledge.
Social Welfare Programme Like ICDS, this also provides employment opportunities to the students of Home Science.

• Chlorine Use of chlorine is the most reliable method to purify the water. It is the cheapest, effective and simple method. This method is used to purify the large quantity of water like water tanks.
It destroys bacteria in water but does not remove the suspended impurities. Water is filtered before chlorination. Now-a-days, chlorine tablets are also available in the markets which are used only to disinfect water at home. One tablet is added to 10 litres of water and is kept for 25-30 minute and is then filtered. These tablets are also used by travellers and military campers.
• Bleaching Powder It is also used in order to purify the water. When bleaching powder is added to the water, a chemical reaction takes place and thus, chlorine gas is produced. This chlorine gas is used to purify the water.
Amount of bleaching powder should be adder) in water according to the amount of impurities in water. Generally, 30 gm of bleaching powder is added to 10 gallons of water for purifying it. Use of bleaching powder is also an easy and effective method of purifying water.

We hope the CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Home Science Paper 2 help you. If you have any query regarding CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Home Science Paper 2, drop a comment below and we will get back to you at the earliest.

## CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Home Science Paper 1

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Home Science Paper 1 are part of CBSE Sample Papers for class 12 Home Science. Here we have given
CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Home Science Paper 1.

## CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Home Science Paper 1

 Board CBSE Class XII Subject Home Science Sample Paper Set Paper 1 Category CBSE Sample Papers

Students who are going to appear for CBSE Class 12 Examinations are advised to practice the CBSE sample papers given here which is designed as per the latest Syllabus and marking scheme as prescribed by the CBSE is given here. Paper 1 of Solved CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Home Science is given below with free PDF download solutions.

Time: 3 Hours
Maximum Marks: 70

General Instructions

There are total 25 questions. All questions are compulsory.

• Question nos  1-6 are of 1 mark, to be answered in one or two lines.
• Question nos 7-13 are of 2 marks, to be answered in 10-20 words.
• Question nos 14-15 case study and picture based are of 3 marks.
• Question nos 16-21 are of 4 marks, to be answered in 40 words.
• Question nos 22-25 are of 5 marks, to be answered in 50-60 words.

Questions.

Question 1.
Define immunization.

Question 2.
Sonu and Rinku are siblings. Sonu is a normal child while Rinku is mentally retarded. How do they differ?

Question 3.
These days selection of clothes has become a big problem. Give reason behind it.

Question 4.
Shreya is very particular about her eating habits. She observed that in winters she is eating more than her normal diet. What can be the reason behind this?

Question 5.
The lifestyle led by a man also influences his meal planning in a positive or negative way. What are the factors of lifestyle that affect meal planning?

Question 6.
Siddhartha is not a member of any group. State any one disadvantage he will suffer from.

Question 7.
Rahul is suffering from diarrhea. What things are to be kept in mind while you planning a meal for him?

Question 8.
Within 15 days of getting your juicer-mixer repaired, it stopped working. State the two ways to deal with this problem.

Question 9.
Mention a list of rights that are given to the consumer.

Question 10.
Why do school-going children require more liquid?

Question 11.
While taking tea, Rahul spilled it on his cotton shirt and it left a stain on the shirt. Suggest him two ways to remove this stain.

Question 12.
People suffering from jaundice need to be very careful about their diet. Give any two dietary points they should adopt.

Question 13.
Why would Mrs Verma prefer to leave her 2 years old child with her mother-in-law at home and not in a creche? Give two reasons.

Question 14.
Ankita is a college-going girl. Her father runs a tea stall and her family income is not high. She wants to support her family. Suggest three ways to Ankita for supplementing her family income.

Question 15.
The figure given below is the logo of FPO. What does it stand for and write the year in which rt came into force?

Question 16.
Mother of 3 years old Saksham is worried due to his jealous behavior. What could be the two possible causes of this jealousy and state four ways in which he may express his feeling?

Question 17.
What eight ways can a college-going student adopt to help himself in supplementing his real income?

Question 18.
“Money is one of the deciding factors in the selection of clothes.” Justify the statement.

Question 19.
Naresh is a labourer who does hard physical labour for about 12 hours a day. Enumerate four factors that his wife must keep in mind while preparing his lunch.(

Question 20.
What is the difference between Growth and Development?

Question 21.
Give the concept of psychic income. On which factor does it depend?

Question 22.
Rehman cannot walk hence is on wheel chair. He is studying in a regular school. In what five ways can teacher help him to meet his emotional needs?

Question 23.
Though there are many good dress designers in the posh vicinity of South Delhi where Shambhavi lives, yet she prefers to buy only readymade garments. What are the reasons that prompt her to buy readymade garments?

Question 24.
Namrata is a graduate in Home Science and is very enthusiastic about applying her Home Science lessons in practical life. Suggest some ways in which she can make use of her Home Science knowledge in everyday life.

Question 25.
Why consumers encounter problems while making purchases and also mention various problems faced by them?

The process of developing immune bodies or anti-bodies in an individual by injecting artificially controlled number of germs into the body is called immunisation.

The difference between them is that Rinku being mentally retarded child is one whose mental capabilities are not developed like his brother Sonu who is a normal child.

Selection of clothes has become a big problem these days because new inventions and developments are taking place in the field of textiles.

She is eating more in winters than in normal times because one needs more energy in winters to maintain body temperature.

The factors of lifestyle include profession, personal activities, income and physical status. These factors influence both the content and composition of nutrients in meal planning.

Siddhartha will not be able to learn social skills which he would have learnt being in group such as leadership and team working.

I will considered about the following points :

• Small amount of food should be given to him at a regular intervals.
• Avoid use of extremely hot, cold, fried and spicy foods.
• More liquid would be given.

Two ways to deal with this problem are

1. If the shopkeeper has given any guarantee period, then we can give the juicer-mixer to the shopkeeper for repairing again.
2. We can approach district forum, state commission or national commission for redcessal of consumer grievances against sale of defective goods or deficient services or adoption of unfair or restrictive trade practices.

Rights of Consumer are defined as Right to Be Heard, Right to Information, Right to Safety, Right to Choose, Right of Compensation, Right to Consumer Education and Right to Information Act.

School-going children require more liquid because they engage in more physical activities which causes more perspiration and results in the loss of water and minerals.

• He should first soak the shirt in glycerine and then wash.
• He should rub washing soda and suhaga on the stain and then wash it with hot water.

People suffering from jaundice should adopt following diet

• They should avoid fried and fatty food including meat, tea, coffee and pickles.
• They should include raw vegetable salad, steamed vegetables, fresh fruits, coconut water or sugarcane juice in their diet.

There are two reasons behind leaving a child with her grandmother which are mentioned below

1. The grandmother will be able to teach the child family values such as affection, care and respect for elders.
2. It is economical as it saves the money spent on a creche.

Ankita can supplement her family income in the following ways

• She can take tuitions.
• She can do part time work in a shop or company.
• She can work in fast food joints on holidays or in the evening.

FPO stands for Food Products order. This mark is a certification mark which is mandatory on all processed fruit products sold in India. It is effective since 1955, but became mandatory in 2006.
FPO Mark is given to pickles, jams, jellies, fruit juices, ketchups, frozen and canned foods. It also gives instructions for packaging, labeling and temperatures of food containers.

A 3 years old child may feel jealous due to the following two reasons

• Arrival of New Born When a younger brother or sister is born, mother gives more attention to the new born baby. It develops a feeling of jealousy in the child.
• Feeling Neglected When mother is working and she cannot devote much time to her child, the child feels neglected and develops the feeling of jealousy.

The child may express his/her emotions in the following ways

1. The child tries to hurt the new born baby.
2. He may start sucking his thumb.
3. He does not listen to his parents.
4. He tries to get attention of his parents.

A college-going student can adopt the following ways to help himself in supplementing his real income.

• He can share transport with others.
• He can help in domestic chores instead of hiring servants.
• He can grow vegetables in pots and kitchen garden.
• He can share rental accommodation.
• He can do part time job or take tuitions.
• He can apply for some scholarship to meet his educational expenses.
• He can cut down on any wasteful or unnecessary expenditure.

The statement that “money is the deciding factor in the selection of clothes” can be justified in the following points

1. Before purchasing clothes, priority should be given to the requirement and the income. Type of fabric, type of weave, exclusive designing, handwork, the finishes are some of the factors which affect the cost of clothes.
2. The prices of clothes should be checked at various shops before purchasing in order to know the right cost of the clothes.
3. It is also important to know whether the price is according to the printed price or not. If we buy clothes without any requirement, it leads to wastage of money, time and energy. Shopping in haste also causes the same problem.
4. Generally, it is said that expensive clothes are of best quality, it may be true to some extent because they are durable and retain their attraction for a long time. But judicious purchase of less expensive clothes may also serve the same purpose.

Balanced lunch for a labourer

 Menu Measurement Ingredients Bajra ki Roti 5-6 Bajra Aatta Vegetable 1 bowl Potato, Carrot, Spices, Onion, Oil Gur, Lassi a bit, 1 glass Gur, Curd

Four factors to be considered while planning his lunch are as follows

1. Meal should include food items from all food groups.
2. Seasonal vegetables should be selected as they are cheaper and nutritious.
3. High calorie diet should be given as they need more energy to do work.
4. Cheap proteins like soyabean should be included in their diet.

Growth Refers to a positive change in size over a period of time.
Development It is the act or process of growing to maturity and more advanced over a period of time.

 Growth Development (i)  Growth is quantitative. (ii) Development is quantitative as well as qualitative. (ii) It comprises of height, weight, size and shape of body organs like brain etc (i)  In this, with the physical changes cognitive, social and emotional changes are included. (iii) It occurs due to cell division. (iv) It happens due to motor and adjustmental processes and their interplay. (v) Growth can be measured. (iv) it can be observed by matured behaviour

• Psychic Income It s that flow of satisfaction that arises out of everyday experiences, derived largely from use of money and real  income. Unlike money and real income, it’s intangible. As its name signifies, it cannot be measured in monetary terms as the mental satisfaction it brings is an abstract idea. It can be described as subjective and is the most important income in terms of quality of living.
• Factors Affecting Psychic Income It depends on the way the members of a family use their skills in order to utilise their money and commodities judiciously. Irrespective of income, one gets satisfaction from the way the money is spent.

A polio-affected child requires extensive care and special attention.
A teacher can help him to meet his emotional needs in the following ways

1. He needs love, sympathy and security, so the teacher should treat him with same behaviour as of others.
2. Make atmosphere congenial for him so that he has the opportunity to develop himself.
3. He should be trained with some special skills so that he becomes confident, independent and do not develop an inferiority complex.
4. He should be included in group activity. It will make him socially adaptable.
5. The classes for polio students should be organised on ground floor so that they do not have to walk up and down stairs.

1. Life is busy with more and more people taking up outside employment. Families resort to purchase readymade clothing due to short of time.
2. Very often, the lack of stitching time, designing, styling skills make the individual purchase readymade garments.
3. Readymade clothes are available in such a wide range of prices and quality, that they are preferred by all the classes.
4. Consumer prefers readymade garments as these are easy to wear, wash and maintain.
5. Readymade clothes can be tried for fitting before purchasing. One can select a dress of suitable design and colour out 6f many available.

Home Science knowledge helps in everyday life in the following manner

1. A person with Home Science knowledge can manage house very well and can be an efficient home maker.
2. Home Science skills enable a person to decorate his/her house in an aesthetic manner.
3. Home Science knowledge can be applied in making nutritious and appetising meals and snacks for family.
4. It enables a person to maintain a record of family income and expenditure.
5. Home Science knowledge can also be applied in providing nursing and first-aid at home.
6. It helps a person to become conscious and alert consumer, and thus prevents him from various malpractices of the shopkeepers.
7. A consumer also becomes aware of his rights to seek redressal in case of dissatisfaction.
8. It can prove quite beneficial in the upbringing of children as it teaches about the physical, mental, social and emotional development of children.
9. It guides in proper selection and maintenance of clothes.
10. The knowledge of Home Science also helps in managing and using time, energy, skills and interest in right direction.

We can purchase items of daily use from different places like a shop, footpath seller, super bazar, wholesale dealer or from central stores. Normally, consumer does not have the proper information about the market. He does not know how many new products are available in the market and from where he can get cheap and good quality products. In this manner, the seller earns more profit but the consumer does not get maximum satisfaction despite spending money. Therefore, the consumers face number of problems while making purchases.
Some major problems faced by the consumers are as under:

• Variation in Prices The consumer has to pay different prices for the same item at different places. Big shops are often expensive as they spend some money on the maintenance of shop,
advertisements and free home delivery which is hidden in the expenses of the consumers.
• Non availability of Items in the Market Sometimes daily-consumed items like butter, potatoes, onions, rice etc are not easily available in the market, then one has to pay higher price in order to get these things.
• Adulteration Adulteration of goods is one such problem which is faced by the consumers in day-to-day purchases. In present times, the biggest problem of adulteration is found in products like ghee, milk, spices, maida, besan etc even if they are proposed to pay higher price.
• Unfair Means of Measurement Incorrect measurement is another problem faced by the consumers in addition to adulteration. Often standard weights and measurements are not used in market.

We hope the CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Home Science Paper 1 help you. If you have any query regarding CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Home Science Paper 1, drop a comment below and we will get back to you at the earliest.

## CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Home Science Paper 4

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Home Science Paper 4 are part of CBSE Sample Papers for class 12 Home Science. Here we have given CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Home Science Paper 4.

## CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Home Science Paper 4

 Board CBSE Class XII Subject Home Science Sample Paper Set Paper 4 Category CBSE Sample Papers

Students who are going to appear for CBSE Class 12 Examinations are advised to practice the CBSE sample papers given here which is designed as per the latest Syllabus and marking scheme as prescribed by the CBSE is given here. Paper 4 of Solved CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Home Science is given below with free PDF download solutions.

Time: 3 Hours
Maximum Marks: 70

General Instructions:
There are total 25 questions. All questions are compulsory.

• Question nos  1-6 are of 1 mark, to be answered in one or two lines.
• Question nos 7-13 are of 2 marks, to be answered in 10-20 words.
• Question nos 14-15 case study and picture based are of 3 marks.
• Question nos 16-21 are of 4 marks, to be answered in 40 words.
• Question nos 22-25 are of 5 marks, to be answered in 50-60 words.

Questions

Question 1.
In Home Science, what is taught in the area of child development?

Question 2.
Name the nutrients we get from the sugar food group.

Question 3.
“Requirement of iodine and zinc is important in pregnancy.” Justify the statement.

Question 4.
Name the food products which do not contain sodium.

Question 5.
Nirmala has completed her Master’s degree in Child Development. How can her degree help her in subsistence?

Question 6.
State two advantages of putting money in provident fund.

Question 7.
What are the advantages of boiling method?

Question 8.
Name various types of immunity.

Question 9.
Write two social traits which develop in adolescence.

Question 10.
Name any two factors affecting the additional requirement of energy during pregnancy.

Question 11.
“The agents of socialisation play a crucial role in the process of child’s development as a social being.” Explain.

Question 12.
What is potable water? Write its two qualities.

Question 13.
Nidhi and Priyanka went to market. Priyanka wants to purchase jam but she dont know what points should be kept in mind while purchasing the jam. If you are Nidhi then what are your responsibilities towards Priyanka?

Question 14.
Suppose, income of your father is limited and not sufficient to meet all the requirements of your family. Your mother can help in supplementing the real income of your family.
On behalf of your mother, suggest six ways to supplement the income.

Question 15.
Labels are printed on the packaging of the products. What information must be provided through a label?

Question 16.
Define saving and elaborate the benefits of saving.

Question 17.
What points would you consider before washing clothes?

Question 18.
Food adulteration is a health hazard that must be countered. As a responsible and conscious citizen, what measures can you suggest to tackle the problem?

Question 19.
State some of the malpractices of shopkeepers in the area of weight and measures.

Question 20.
What points will you keep in your mind while purchasing a dress for your college going brother who is short in height?

Question 21.
It is a misconception that the more one spends on diet, the better the nutritional value one is able to get or we can say that balanced diet does not mean expensive diet. Explain the point by giving examples

Question 22.
Rajeshwar Singh is going to retire after four years. Suggest him two investment schemes for his safe old age.

Question 23.
How does socio-economic status of a child affect the cognitive development of the child?

Question 24.
Define stain and classify different types of stains along with the medium used for their removal.

Question 25.
Meal planning without the help of food group is very laborious and time consuming. How?

Complete knowledge of the physical, mental, social and emotional development of child is taught in Home Science.

We get carbohydrates and iron from sugar food group. Jaggery and honey are good sources of iron.

Zinc is required for growth and protein synthesis. Iodine is required to regulate the mental and physical growth of foetus. So, iodine and zinc play an important role in pregnancy.

Some food products which do not contain sodium are barley, rajma, lobia, hand pounded rice, bathua, mustard leaves and pumpkin etc.

Nirmala can join ICDS and NGO which are working in the field of child care.

Following are the two advantages of putting money in provident fund

• Loan can be taken against it.
• It qualifies for tax rebate.

The advantages of boiling method are mentioned below

• Solid substances like chalk powder, carbonic compounds and pathogenic micro-organisms are destroyed by boiling.
• Temporary hazards and salinity of water is also reduced by boiling.

• Natural immunity—This is present from birth. Some antibodies are transferred from mother to child during breast feeding.
• Acquired immunity—This is present from birth but acquired later on life. It can be naturally or artificially acquired.

Following are the two social traits which develop in adolescence

• Social maturity and taking responsibility.
• Attraction towards opposite sex.

Following are the factors affecting the additional requirement of energy during pregnancy

• Additional energy is required for the growth of foetus.
• It is also required due to higher basal metabolic rate during pregnancy.

The agent’s of socialisation in the social development of a child include parents, grandparents, siblings, friends and teachers. At home, the most important agents, are parents, grandparents, neighbours and friends. When the child starts going to school, his teachers also play crucial role in the process of child’s development as a social being.

Water which is free from impurities and safe for drinking is known as potable water.
Two qualities of potable water are

1. Potable water is colourless and odourless.
2. It is free from pathogenic organism and harmful bacteria.

I will tell her the following instructions

1. Differentiate between genuine and misleading labels.
2. To keep information regarding the composition method of using, date of manufacture and expiry.
3. Be judicious about standard mark and price also.

My mother can supplement family income in the following manner

1. She can do her domestic chores herself.
2. She can use community facilities like public bus to go for shopping.
3. She can utilise her skills like culinary to supplement family income.
4. She can teach her children at home.
5. She can grow vegetables in pots in kitchen garden.
6. She can stitch clothes herself for family members.

Bureau of Indian Standard has fixed certain standards for a complete label.
Some of these are given below

1. Name and ingredients of the product.
2. Brand name and trade mark,
3. Net weight/volume/length.
4. Use of the product.
5. Dates of manufacturing and expiry.
6. Price of product.
7. Batch and licence number.
8. Warning, if any.

The portion of family income which is kept apart for the future contingencies is known as ‘saving’. Saving is the difference between income and expenditure. It can be expressed as

Savings are important for a person due to the following reasons

1. Economic Security The main aim of saving is to provide economic security to the family.
2. Increase in Income Saving increases the family income. If the savings are properly invested, additional money is earned in the form of dividends or interest.
3. For Fulfilling the Future Needs and Goals Savings are essential for different stages of life cycle. – In the initial stages when the children are small and their demands are few, one requires lesser amount of money. But in later phase, one has to spend more on the higher education, marriage etc of the children.
4. Helping in Implementation of National Plans Savings done by an individual are invested in the development plans of the nation. Savings are used for the national defence and development.
5. To Meet the Emergency of Severe Ailment or Accident A member of family needs an immediate medical attention in case of severe illness or accident. Thus, savings are used in emergency situations also.

Following points should be considered before washing clothes

1. Clothes should be washed as soon as they become dirty.
2. Soiled clothes should not be kept with clean clothes and should be washed separately.
3. It is better to wash coloured and white clothes separately.
4. Soaps and detergents should be selected according to the type of cloth.
5. Before soaking heavily soiled clothes into detergent, it is better to soak them into water for a few hours. It loosens the dirt from the fabric.
6. Soaps and detergents should not be very harsh.
7. For delicate fabric, silk and woollens, select the cleaning agent accordingly.

1. It is necessary for every citizen to be aware of his duty in detecting adulteration and to assist the government and the law in curbing it.
2. It is the duty of every citizen to check the menace of adulteration and work actively in exposing and condemning it.
3. Offer full cooperation and help in campaign against the food adulteration.
4. Give lawful assistance to food inspectors in drawing of adulterated food samples.
5. Be prompt in giving information about specific instances of adulteration. Convey it by post or by telephone to the concerned authorities.
6. Be ready to act as a witness and to give evidence in court in such cases.
7. Take initiative in getting the food tested for adulteration.

The shopkeepers use following malpractices in the area of weight and measures

1. They deviate from standard norms and practices.
2. The shopkeepers use defective weights for weighing.
3. They use stones in place of standard weights for weighing.
4. Weight may have hollow space.
5. Magnet may be stuck at the bottom of the pan.
6. The pointer in the balance may be missing.
7. The beam may not be equally divided.
8. They use faulty measuring tape.

The following points need to be considered

1. Select dark and bright colours according to his age.
2. Clothes should be comfortable.
3. Select clothes according to the latest fashion as he is college going and would prefer the latest trendy clothes.
4. The colour of shirt and trousers should be same.
5. Select clothes with vertical lines as it gives an illusion of height.
6. Clothes should be well-fitting, neither too tight nor too loose.
7. The fabric should be chosen with care.
8. Clothes should be purchased according to the season.

A wrong notion that exists in our minds is that ‘food which is expensive is of better nutritive value’. On the contrary, we find that foods which are cheap are often very rich in nutritive value. Proper selection and judicious meal planning can help in obtaining maximum nutritional value and affecting economy. To prove this statement, we can take few instances

• Low cost cereals like ragi, jowar, bajra etc are more nutritious than expensive cereals like rice and wheat.
• Sugar is costlier than jaggery, but the latter contains iron which is not present in sugar.
• Almonds are very good for health, but the cheaper groundnuts are equally nutritious.
• In the same way, seasonal fruits and vegetables are not expensive but are nutritious.
Thus, high quality foods are not expensive if you know how to choose them.

The two investment schemes for his safe old age are following

1. Insurance Policy It provides security to a person from natural and man-made losses.
From 1st January, 2014, service tax is being revised on insurance scheme.
According to this agreement, the insurer has to deposit a fixed amount as premium at regular intervals.
In return, the insurance is of two types

• General Insurance This insurance ensures compensation in the case of theft, fire, floods, drought etc.
• Life Insurance It is one of the best means of investment. When we opt for an insurance policy, we have to save some money to pay for the premium at regular intervals. Life insurance compensates the economic loss of the insurance against death due to accident or hazards to life.
2. Provident Fund Schemes This scheme was started by the Government of India in J.952. This is a safe method of investment. This scheme is for all the sections of employees and it is compulsory for all of them. Every employee invests a part of his income in this scheme.
This scheme is of two types

1. General Provident Fund This scheme is for Government employees. In this scheme, every employee has to pay a minimum of 10% of his basic pay per month. After retirement or incase of death this amount along with interest is paid to the employee or to his nominee. This money is exempted from income tax.
2. Contributory Provident Fund This is for non-government or semi-governmental employees. In this scheme each employee contributes a minimum of 8% of this basic pay. An equal amount is contributed by the employer. This amount along with interest is paid to the employee at the time of retirement.

Socio-economic status of a child affects the cognitive development of the child in the following ways

• Sensory Development If the sensory development is good, cognition will also be proper as it depends upon the sensations we receive from the environment.
• Motor Development It refers to the ability to move and coordinate the different parts of the body to perform different skills as crawling, walking, standing, grasping etc.
• Intelligence If the child is intelligent, his cognitive development will be good because then he will understand his environment in better way.
• Curiosity The children who are more curious and ask more questions, are able to form good concepts and their cognitive development is also good.
• Opportunity for Learning Children who get more and better opportunities of learning are able to have good cognition and that too with a good pace.

‘Stain A stain can be defined as any unpleasant mark or spot which if remains unremoved, has the effect of spoiling the appearance of cloth/fabric. Different types of stains are found on clothes. Some of them are as follows

• Vegetable Stains Stains of tea, coffee, fruits and vegetables are called vegetable stains. Alkaline medium is used to remove these stains.
• Animal Stains Stains of milk, meat, eggs and blood come under this category. To remove these types of stains, they need to be washed with detergent in cold water. The stains become permanent if washed in hot water.
• Oil Stains These stains are of oil, ghee, butter etc. These stains are removed by the use of grease solvents and absorbent.
• Mineral Stains The stains of ink, rust, coal tar and medicine are known as mineral stains. These stains should be washed first in acidic and then in alkaline medium.

It is quite difficult to do meal planning without the help of food groups because of the following reasons

• Recommended Dietary Allowances Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) has recommended daily dietary allowances for Indians of different age groups, class, sex, work and during special conditions keeping in mind the Indian conditions.
It means that a meal planner needs to include different food groups to cater to the requirements of everyone in the family.
• Food Groups Different foods have varied amount of nutrients. Hence, we require different food products for a balanced diet. But if we don’t include different food groups and stick to some particular type or types of food, then it will become a stupendous task for the meal planner.
If we keep on calculating the nutritive value of different food stuffs everyday, it would require lots of time and labour.

We hope the CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Home Science Paper 4 help you. If you have any query regarding CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Home Science Paper 4, drop a comment below and we will get back to you at the earliest.

## CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 Social Science Paper 2

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 Social Science Paper 2 are part of CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 Social Science. Here we have given CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 Social Science Paper 2.

## CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 Social Science Paper 2

 Board CBSE Class X Subject Social Science Sample Paper Set Paper 2 Category CBSE Sample Papers

Students who are going to appear for CBSE Class 10 Examinations are advised to practice the CBSE sample papers given here which is designed as per the latest Syllabus and marking scheme as prescribed by the CBSE is given here. Paper 2 of Solved CBSE Sample Paper for Class 10 Social Science is given below with free PDF download solutions.

General Instructions:

• The question paper has 27 questions in all. All questions are compulsory.
• Marks are indicated against each question.
• Questions from serial number 1 to 7 are very short answer questions. Each question carries 1 mark.
• Questions from serial number 8 to 18 are 3 marks questions. Answer of these questions should not exceed 80 words each.
• Questions from serial number 19 to 25 are 5 marks questions. Answer of these questions should not exceed 100 words each.
• Question number 26 and 27 are map questions of 2 marks from History and 3 marks from Geography. After completion, attach the maps inside the answer book

Question 1.
What was ‘cowries’?
OR
Who produced a music book that had a picture on the cover page announcing the ‘Dawn of the Century’?
OR
Who wrote several volumes on the London labour, and compiled long lists of those who made a living from crime?

Question 2.
Name the oldest Japanese book printed.
OR
What was the price of Henry Fielding’s Tom Jones (1749) issued in six volumes?

Question 3.
What do you understand by The Black Power?

Question 4.
Give a prominent example of a region with a low rainfall and which is drought prone.

Question 5.
What does development mean for a landless rural labourer?

Question 6.
What is a cheque?

Question 7.
What does Life Expectancy at birth denote?

Question 8.
Gandhiji decided to launch a nationwide satyagraha in 1919. Why?

Question 9.
Critically evaluate the conditions that favoured the conquests of Latin America by the European
powers like Spain and Portugal.
OR
What is proto-industrialisation? “In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, merchants from the towns in Europe began moving to the countryside”. Explain any two reasons.
OR
Who wrote ‘The Bitter Cry of Outcast London’? When? What was the issue author stated?

Question 10.
What is holding together Federation? Give examples of ‘holding together federations’.

Question 11.
What are Concurrent Lists? Give Examples.

Question 12.
Point out why the Mexico Olympics of 1968 was depicted as a landmark in the history of the
Civil Rights Movements in the United States of America.

Question 13.
Define the term resource. Do you think resources are free gift of nature?

Question 14.
Name the two important by-products of sugarcane other than the sugar and jaggery. State
the temperature and rainfall requirements of sugarcane. Also name the two major sugarcane producing states of India.

Question 15.
What is ‘Average Income’ Or ‘Per capita Income’?

Question 16.
Analyse the functions of Consumer Protection Councils?

Question 17.
Explain what is tertiary sector? Give examples.

Question 18.
Who supervises the functioning of banks? In what ways is the supervision done?

Question 19.
Write short notes on Gutenberg and the Printing Press.
OR
‘The most of readers of the novel lived in the city, the novel created in them a feeling of connection with the fate of rural communities’. Explain with suitable examples

Question 20.
From which language the term ‘liberalism’ derived? Give its meaning. What was liberalism
according to Middle Class?
OR
Why the French thought colonies necessary? What did they do for that? Explain any two points.

Question 21.
‘Democracy is an accountable, responsive and legitimate form of government’. Explain

Question 22.
Discuss Challenge of Expansion and Challenge of Deepening of Democracy with suitable
examples.

Question 23.
What is the total length of road networks in India? Explain how roads have edge over the
railways.

Question 24.
Name the most important metallurgical industry in India. Where is this industry concentrated?
Explain any two factors responsible for the concentration of this industry.

Question 25.
Explain any two rights of consumers that protect them from exploitation in the market place.

Question 26.
Two features A and B are marked on the given political outline map of India: Identify these features with the help of the following information and write their correct names on the lines marked in the map:
A. The place where the Indian National Congress Session was held in September 1922.
B. The place where Gandhiji broke the ‘Salt Law’.
OR
Locate and label on the same map given:

(1) The place where peasants organized a Satyagraha in 1917
(2) Nagpur

Question 27.
On the given same political outline map of India locate and label/identify the type of soil the following with appropriate symbols:
(1) Identity the type of soil in the shaded portion shown in map.
(2) Mysore Silk Textile Centre
(3)Vishakhapatnam Sea Port

Cowries-the Hindi cowdi or seashells, used as a form of currency.
OR
In 1900, a popular music publisher E.T. Pauli.
OR
Henry Mayhew.

The oldest Japanese book, printed in AD 868, is the Buddhist Diamond Sutra.
OR
Henry Fielding’s Tom Jones (1749) was issued in six volumes priced at three shillings each.

A movement emerged in 1966 and lasted till 1975, which was a more militant anti-racist
movement, advocating even violence if necessary to end racism in the US.

Rajasthan

Ans. More days of work and better wages; local school is able to provide quality education for
children; there is health facilities, and there is no social discrimination.

A cheque is a paper instructing the bank to pay a specific amount from the person’s account
to the person in whose name the cheque has been issued.

Life Expectancy at birth denotes, as the name suggests, average expected length of life of a
person at the time of birth.

(1) Gandhij i in 1919 decided to launch a nationwide satyagraha against the proposed Rowlatt Act (1919).
(2) This Act had been hurriedly passed through the Imperial Legislative Council despite the united opposition of the Indian members. It gave the government enormous powers to repress political activities, and allowed detention of political prisoners without trial for two years.
(3) Mahatma Gandhi wanted non-violent civil disobedience against such unjust laws, which would start with a hartal on 6 April.

(1) The conquest by European powers like Spain and Portugal were not just a result of superior
firepower or conventional military weapons.
(2) It was the germs such as those of smallpox that they carried on their person. Because of their long isolation, America’s original inhabitants had no immunity against these diseases
that came from Europe. Smallpox in particular proved a deadly killer.
(3) Once introduced, it spread deep into the continent, ahead even of any Europeans reaching there. It killed and decimated whole communities, paving the way for conquest.
OR
Even before factories began to dot the landscape in England and Europe, there was large- scale industrial production for an international market. This was not based on factories. Many historians now refer to this phase of industrialisation as proto-industrialisation.
Two Reasons:

• In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, merchants from the towns in Europe began moving to the countryside, supplying money to peasants and artisans, persuading them to produce for an international market.
• With the expansion of world trade and the acquisition of colonies in different parts of the world, the demand for goods began growing.

OR
1. Andrew Meams, a clergyman who wrote The Bitter Cry of Outcast London in the 1880s.
2. It showed why crime was more profitable than labouring in small underpaid factories: ‘A child seven years old is easily known to make 10 shillings 6 pence a week from thieving … Before he can gain as much as the young thief (a boy) must make 56 gross of matchboxes a week, or 1,296 a day.

Holding Together is where a large country decides to divide its power between the constituent
States and the national government. In this category, the central government tends to be more powerful vis-a-vis the States. Very often different constituent units of the federation have unequal powers. Some units are granted special powers.
India, Spain and Belgium are examples of this kind of ‘holding together’ federations.

(1) Concurrent List includes subjects of common interest to both the Union Government as
well as the State Governments, such as education, forest, trade unions, marriage, adoption and succession.
(2) Both the Union as well as the State Governments can make laws on the subjects mentioned in this list. If their laws conflict with each other, the law made by the Union Government will prevail.

(1) The US athletes, Tommie Smith and John Carlos were African-Americans. They had won the gold and bronze medals respectively.
(2) They received their medals wearing black socks and did not wear shoes, this was done to represent Black poverty. With this gesture, they tried to draw international attention to racial discrimination in the United States.
(3) The black-gloved and raised clenched fists were meant to symbolize black power. The silver medallist, white Australian athlete, Peter Norman, wore a human rights badge on his shirt during the ceremony to show his support to the two Americans

(1) Everything available in our environment which can be used to satisfy our needs, provided,
it is technologically accessible, economically feasible and culturally acceptable can be termed as ‘Resource’.
(2) They are not. Resources are a function of human activities.
(3) Human beings themselves are essential components of resources.
(4) They transform material available in our environment into resources and use them.

(1) Sugarcane by-products: Khandsari and molasses
(2) Rainfall: 75-100 cm annually
(3) Temperature: 21°C to 27°C
(4) States: Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka, Punjab and Haryana.

Per capita Income is obtained by dividing the national income by the population of the country.

(1) The consumer movement in India has led to the formation of various organisations locally known as consumer forums or consumer protection councils.
(2) They guide consumers on how to file cases in the consumer court. On many occasions,
they also represent individual consumers in the consumer courts.
(3) These voluntary organisations also receive financial support from the government for
creating awareness among the people.

(1) These are activities that help in the development of the primary and secondary sectors.
These activities, by themselves, do not produce a good but they are an aid or a support
for the production process.
(2) For example, goods that are produced in the primary or secondary sector would need to be transported by trucks or trains and then sold in wholesale and retail shops. At times, it may be necessary to store these in godowns.
(3) We also may need to talk to others over telephone or send letters (communication) or
borrow money from banks (banking) to help production and trade. Transport, storage, communication, banking, trade are some examples of tertiary activities.
(4) Since these activities generate services rather than goods, the tertiary sector is also called the service sector.

(1) The Reserve Bank of India supervises the functioning of formal sources of loans.
(2) The RBI monitors the banks whether they are maintaining minimum cash balance.
(3) The RBI sees that the banks give loans not just for profit-making businesses and traders
but also to small cultivators, small scale industries, to small borrowers etc.
(4) Periodically, banks have to submit information to the RBI on how much they are lending, to whom, at what interest rate, etc.

(1) Gutenberg was the son of a merchant and grew up on a large agricultural estate.
(2) From his childhood he had seen wine and olive presses. He learnt the art of polishing i stones, became a master goldsmith, and also acquired the expertise to create lead moulds used for making trinkets. Drawing on this knowledge, Gutenberg adapted existing
technology to design his innovation. The olive press provided the model for the printing press, and moulds were used for casting the metal types for the letters of the alphabet.
(3) By 1448, Gutenberg perfected the system. The first book he printed was the Bible. About 180 copies were printed and it took three years to produce them. By the standards of the time this was fast production.
OR
(1) The nineteenth-century British novelist Thomas Hardy, for instance, wrote about traditional rural communities of England that were fast vanishing. It was written at a time when large farmers fenced off land, bought machines and employed labourers to produce for the market.
(2) Second was when the old rural culture with its independent farmers was dying out. We get a sense of this change in Hardy’s Mayor of Casterbridge (1886). It is about Michael Henchard, a successful grain merchant, who becomes the mayor of the farming town of Casterbridge.

(1) The term ‘liberalism’ derives from the Fatin root liber, meaning free.
(2) For the new middle classes, liberalism stood for freedom for the individual and equality of all before the law.
(3) Politically, it emphasised the concept of government by consent. Since the French Revolution, liberalism had stood for the end of autocracy and clerical privileges, a constitution and representative government through parliament. Nineteenth-century liberals also stressed the inviolability of private property.
OR
(1) Colonies were considered essential to supply natural resources and other essential goods.
(2) Fike other Western nations, France also thought it was the mission of the ‘advanced’ European countries to bring the benefits of civilisation to backward peoples.
(3) The French began by building canals and draining lands in the Mekong delta to increase cultivation. The vast system of irrigation works – canals and earthworks – built mainly with forced labour, increased rice production and allowed the export of rice to the international market.

(1) Most basic outcomes of democracy should be that it produces a government that is
accountable to the citizens, and responsive to the needs and expectations of the citizens.
(2) Democracy is based on the idea of deliberation and negotiation. So, some delay is bound to take place but because it has followed procedures, its decisions may be both more acceptable to the people and more effective. So, the cost of time that democracy pays is perhaps worth it.
(3) A citizen who wants to know if a decision was taken through the correct procedures can find this out. She has the right and the means to examine the process of decision-making. This is known as transparency.
(4) The democratic government develops mechanisms for citizens to hold the government accountable and mechanisms for citizens to take part in decision making whenever they think fit.

Discuss Challenge of Expansion and Challenge of Deepening of Democracy with suitable
examples.
Ans.
(1) Challenge of ‘Expansion of Democracy’: This stage involves applying the basic principle of democratic government across all the regions, different social groups and various institutions. Empowering various social groups, federal structures, women and minorities etc. This also means that less and less decisions should remain outside the democratic control. Most of the democracies like India and USA face this challenge.
(2) Challenge of ‘Deepening of Democracy’: This involves strengthening of the institutions and practices of democracy by people’s participation and control. This should happen in such a way that people can realise their expectations of democracy. This requires an attempt to bring down the control and influence of the rich and powerful in making governmental decisions.

(1) Length of road networks: 2.3 million km.
(2) Roadways: Edge over railways: (Any three)

• Construction cost of roads is much lower than that of railway lines.
• Roads can traverse comparatively more dissected and undulating topography.
• Roads can negotiate higher gradients of slopes and as such can traverse mountains such
as the Himalayas.
• Road transport is economical in transportation of few persons and relatively smaller amount of goods over short distances.
• Road transport is also used as a feeder to other modes of transports such as they provide a link between railway stations, air and seaports.

(1) Iron and Steel industry
(2) Chhotanagpur Plateau region
(3) Factors responsible:
(a) Low cost iron ore:
Chhotanagpur Plateau region is extremely rich in good quality iron ore at low cost. This helped to locate many steel plants in this region.

(b) Home market: India is progressing rapidly. Hence, the country is in great need of steel leading to a great demand. Thus, there is a great potential for home market.

(c) Well developed transport network: This region is well developed has network of railways and that helps procuring raw materials and then distribute in the market.

Rights of consumers:

1. Right to information
2. Right to seek redressal
3. Right to choose
4. Right to be heard
5. Right to safety

We hope the CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 Social Science Paper 2 help you. If you have any query regarding CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 Social Science Paper 2, drop a comment below and we will get back to you at the earliest.

## CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Informatics Practices Paper 1

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Informatics Practices Paper 1 are part of CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Informatics Practices. Here we have given CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Informatics Practices Paper 1.

## CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Informatics Practices Paper 1

 Board CBSE Class XII Subject Informatics Practices Sample Paper Set Paper 1 Category CBSE Sample Papers

Students who are going to appear for CBSE Class 12 Examinations are advised to practice the CBSE sample papers given here which is designed as per the latest Syllabus and marking scheme, as prescribed by the CBSE, is given here. Paper 1 of Solved CBSE Sample Paper for Class 12 Informatics Practices is given below with free PDF download solutions.

Time Allowed: 3 hours
Maximum Marks: 70

General Instructions

• All questions are compulsory.

Question 1.
(a) The network administrator of ABC Inc. wants to prevent traffic overload within the network of the company. For this purpose, he needs to divide the company network into the subnetworks (LAN segments). Suggest him a
(b) Explain the purpose of domain name system.
(d) When would you prefer hubs over repeaters?
(e) Explain the packet switching technique.
(f) Write any four criteria for distribution of OSS.
(g) What is the significance of anonymous user in FTP?

Question 2.
(a) While working in Netbeans, Ms. Riya has designed a login page, where she wants to display table. Help her in choosing more appropriate control out of ‘JTextField’ and ‘JTextArea’. Give a reason for your choice.
(b) In the code fragment given below, what output display when a user is equal 30?

if(user<=18)
{
System.out.println("User is younger"):
}
else if(user>18 && user<40)
{
System.out.println("User is between 19 and 39");
}
else
{
System.out.println("User is older than 40");
}

(c) Predict the output of the following HTML code :

<HTML>
<TABLE border = ”4">
<TR align = "right” valign="middle">
<TH colspan="2">Production</TH>
<TH rowspan="3">Sales</TH>
</TR>
<TR>
<TD>Naveen</TD>
<TD>458</TD>
</TR>
<TR>
<TD>Neelam</TD>
<TD>896</TD>
</TR>
</TABLE>
</HTML>

(d) Differentiate between the following code fragments and also give their output:

(i)
int f = l,i = 2;
while(++i< 5)
f *= 1;
System.out.print!n(f);

(ii) int f = l,i = 2;
do
{
f *= i;
}whi!e(++i< 5);
System.out.println(f);

(e) (i) Write a function in Java that takes two numbers as parameters. It then returns that number whose square is greater than the square of other numbers.
(ii) Rewrite the following switch code using if else statement.

switch(roll)
{
case 1:
Section='A';
break; case 2:
Section='B';
break; default:
Section='C';
}

Question 3.
(a) Identify the output of the following query:
mysql> SELECT MID(‘FINANCE’, 3, 2);
(b) Mr. Shivam created two tables with ID as primary key in Table 1 and foreign key in Table2. While inserting a row in Table2, he is not able to enter a value in the column ID. What could be the possible reason for it?
(c) Consider the table ‘LAB’.

Write SQL statement to obtain the following output:

(d)
(i) You need to add a NOT NULL constraint to the E-MAIL column in the table EMPLOYEES. Which clause should you use? Give an example.
(ii) You need to remove the column named EMP_FK_DEPT that is FOREIGN KEY constraint from the table EMPLOYEES in your schema. What statement should you use?
(e) Define the following:
(i) Domain
(ii) Relation
(iii) Tuples
(iv) Attribute

Question 4.
(a) What is following code doing?

String db = JOptionPane. showInputDialog("Enter name of your MySQL database . . . ");
String DB_URL=" jdbc:mysql://local host/"+ db;
Class. forName ("com.mysql. jdbc. Driver");
Connection con = DriverManager.getConnection(DBJJRL, "root"," " );

(b) Swagatika is a programmer at xyz enterprises. She created the following GUI:

Help her to write code in Java for the following:
(i) The percentage marks are to be entered in the text field (marksTF) and upon clicking the button (calcBTN) corresponding grade (as per following rules) should be displayed in the Table (resultLbl) below command button:
> = 90                        A + +
80 – 90                        A +
75 – 80                        A
60 – 75                        B
50 – 60                        C
40 – 50                        D
< 40                            Fail

(ii) Write the code for FocusLost event of text field (marksTF) to ensure that the user does not enter a negative or zero value. If a negative or a zero value is entered, then the text field should be made blank and a warning message should be displayed.
(iii) If you are asked to add a clear button to the application, which code would you write for it so that the text field marksTF and label resultLbl get cleared when it is clicked?

(c)
(i) What will be display in jTextArea 1 after the execution of the following code?

int a=4;
do
{
jTextAreal. setTextlInteger. toString(++a));
a=a+l;
}whi1e(a<=8);

(ii) Find output of the following Java code snippet:

String b="Monkey";
String c="No jump";
String d=b+c;
System.out.println(d);
d=b.concat(c);
System.out.println(d);

(d) A class Person with the data members name and id. Another class Employee with the data member salary. Write definitions for classes Person and Employee for the following situations:
(i) Objects of both class are able to access all the data members of both the classes individually.
(ii) Only the members of class Employee can access all the data members of both the class.

Question 5.
(a) Write MySQL command to open an existing database.
(b) Ms. Meera wants to remove the entire content of a table “EMPLOYEE” alongwith its structure to release the storage space. Which MySQL statement should she use?
(c) Wiite the output of the following SQL queries:

(i) SELECT RIGHT ('COMPUTER' , 2);
(ii) SELECT INSTR ('Family’, 'mi');
(iii) SELECT DAY0FM0NTH('2016 - 05 - 25');
(iv) SELECT ROUND(76, 987, 2);

(d) Ihble “EMP” is shown below. Wiite commands in SQL for (i) and (ii) and output of query for (iii) and (iv).

(i) lb display list of all employees below 25 years old.
(ii) lb count the numbers of employees with names starting with ‘P’.

(iii) SELECT Name. Age FROM EMP WHERE Sex ='F';
(iv) SELECT Name, Contact FROM EMP WHERE Contact LIKE ’99%’;

Question 6.
(a)
(i) Write MySQL command to create the table PRODUCT including its constraints.

(ii) In a database ’BigBajar’ there are two tables with a sample data given below:

I. Identity the foreign key in the table Product.
II. P_Id column in the PRODUCT table is the …………… key.
Cust ld column in the CUSTOMER table is the ……………. key.
(b) With reference to the above-given tables (in Q6 (a) (ii)), write SQL commands for (i) and (ii) and output for(iii).
(i) To display Cust_Id, C_Name, P_Name, Price where price is greater than 50000.
(ii) To add a column P_Type with datatype VARCHAR and size 20 in the table PRODUCT.

(iii) SELECT P.P_Name, C.C_Name FROM PRODUCT P, CUSTOMER C WHERE P.Cust_Id=C.Cust_Id;

Question 7.
(a) What do you think about the most outstanding feature of E-Leaming?
(b) Which all features would you suggest for an effective front-end?
(c) Madhvi works for a shipping mart. She wants to create controls on a form for the following operations. Choose most appropriate controls out of TextBox, Label, RadioButton, ListBox, ComboBox, CheckBox and CommandButton.

(a) A switch would serve the required purpose. Along with that, a switch is also responsible for filtering, i.e. transforming data in a specific way and for forwarding packets between LAN segments.
(b) Domain Name System (DNS) is a network service that translates domain name to the associated IP address.
(c) An advantage of star topology In star topology, the central node is connected directly to every other node in the network means that faults are easily detected and isolated.
A disadvantage of star topology If the central node in the star network fails, the entire network goes down.
(d) Hubs should be preferred over repeaters when more than two computers are to be connected in a network while repeaters are only used for signal modification.
(e) In packet switched networks, the message gets broken into small data packets. These packets are sent out from the computer and they travel around the network seeking out the
most efficient route to travel as circuits become available.
(f) Four criteria for distribution of OSS are as follows:
(i) No discrimination against person on groups.
(ii) No discrimination against fields of endeavor.
(iii) License must not be specific to a product.
(iv) License must not restricted other software.
(g) In order to use FTP effectively, one need to be an authorised user. However, anonymous FTP (i.e. logging in as an anonymous user) is a method whereby FTP server allows the general public to access files on an FTP server. Uploading of files refer to the transfer of files from one’s computer onto FTP server. An anonymous user generally is not allowed to upload files.

(a) ‘JTextArea’ is best option to display the multiple rows table because JTextField accepts only single line of text whereas JTextArea accepts multiple line of text.
(b) Output
User is between 19 and 39
(c) Output

(d) The difference in the given code fragments is code
(ii) executes one time more than code
(i) because code
(ii) is implemented using do-while loop, do-while loop executes at least once even if the while condition is false, whereas, in while loop, it first checks the condition and then enter the loops, if the condition is true.
Output of code
(i) 12 (ii)2 4
(e)

(i) private int compareSqr (int a, int b)
{
if( (a*a) > (b*b))
return a;
else
return b;
}

(ii) if (ro11 == 1)
Section='A’;
else if(roll == 2)
Section=’B’;
else
Section='C';

(a)

(b) Mr. Shivam must be trying to enter a value of ID in Table2, which is not present in the ID column of Tablel.

(c) SELECT Project_Code FROM LAB WHERE Name = 'Arun';

(d)
(i) MODIFY, clause of ALTER TABLE statement should be used to add NOT NULL constraint to column E-MAIL in the table EMPLOYEES as given below:

ALTER TABLE EMPLOYEES MODIFY E-MAIL VARCHAR(IO) NOT NULL;
(ii) ALTER TABLE EMPLOYEES DROP FOREIGN KEY EMP_FK_DEPT;

(e)
(i) Domain A domain is a collection of all possible values from which the values for a given column or an attribute is drawn. A domain is said to be atomic if elements are considered to be individual units.
(ii) Relation A relation is a table with columns and rows which represent the data items and relationships among them. Relations have three important properties a name, cardinality and a degree.
(iii) Tuples The rows in a relation are also known as tuples. Each row or tuple has a set of permitted values for each attribute.
(iv) Attribute The heading columns of a table are known as attributes. Each attribute of a table has a distinct name.

(a) This code is creating a connection object namely con for MySQL database, whose name is obtained from the user using an InputDialog. UserlD of the database is root,
(b)

(i) private void calcBTNActionPerformedtjava.awt.event.ActionEvent evt)
{
float num = FI oat. parseFloat (marksTF. getText());
String S = "You get":
if(num >= 90)
S += "A++";
else if(num >= 80)
S += "A+";
else if(num >= 75)
S += "A";
else if(num >= 60)
S += "B";
else if(num >= 50)
S += "C";
el se if(num >= 40)
S += "D";
else
S = "Fail";
resultLbl. setText (S);
}
(ii) private void marksTFFocusLost(java.awt.event.FocusEvent evt)
{
int marks = Integer.parseInt(marksTF. getText());
if(marks <= 0)
{
marksTF.setText(" ");
JOptionPane.showMessageDialog(nul1,"Marks
cannot be negative or zero");
}
}
(iii) marksTF. setText(" ");
resultLbl.setText(" ");

(c)
(i) jTextarea will display
5
7
9
(ii) MonkeyNo jump
MonkeyNo jump
(d)

(i) class Person
{
public:
String name;
public:
int id;
}
class Employee
{
public:
int salary;
}
(ii) class Person
{
protected:
String name ;
}
class Employee extends Person
{
private:
int salary:
}

(a) USE <database name>;
(b) DROP TABLE EMPLOYEE;
(c)

(d)
(i) SELECT * FROM EMP WHERE AGE<25';
(ii) SELECT COUNT(*) FROM EMP WHERE NAME LIKE 'P%';


(a)

(i) CREATE TABLE PRODUCT
{
P_Id DECIMAK (4) PRIMARY KEY,
P_Name VARCHAR(20),
P_Company VARCHAR(20),
Price DEC IMAL(8) NOT NULL
};
(ii) I. Foreign key: Custjd
II. Primary, Primary

(b)

(i) SELECT Cust_Id, C_Name, P_Name, Price FROM PRODUCT P, CUSTOMER C
WHERE P.Cust_Id=C.Cust_Id AND Price>50000;
(ii) ALTER TABLE PRODUCT ADD P_Type VARCHARC20);


(a) The most outstanding feature of E-Learning is that it has opened door for skill enhancement to the people of all age groups and skill levels.
(b) Features of an effective front-end are as follows:
(i) Ease of use
(ii) Simple and uncluttered look
(iii) Easy to understand
(iv) Proper visual feedback
(c)

We hope the CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Informatics Practices Paper 1 help you. If you have any query regarding CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Informatics Practices Paper 1, drop a comment below and we will get back to you at the earliest.

## CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Economics Paper 6

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Economics Paper 6 are part of CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Economics. Here we have given CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Economics Paper 6.

## CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Economics Paper 6

 Board CBSE Class XII Subject Economics Sample Paper Set Paper 6 Category CBSE Sample Papers

Students who are going to appear for CBSE Class 12 Examinations are advised to practice the CBSE sample papers given here which is designed as per the latest Syllabus and marking scheme as prescribed by the CBSE is given here. Paper 6 of Solved CBSE Sample Paper for Class 12 Economics is given below with free PDF download solutions.

Time : 3 hrs
M.M.: 80

General Instructions

• All questions in both the sections A and B are compulsory. However, there is internal choice in questions of 3,4 and 6 marks.
• Question Nos. 1-4 and 13-16 are very short answer type questions, carrying 1 mark each.
They are required to be answered in one sentence each.
• Question Nos. 5-6 and 17-18 are short answer I type questions, carrying 3 marks each.
Answers to them should not normally exceed 60 words each.
• Question Nos. 7-9 and 19-21 are short answer II type questions, carrying 4 marks each.
Answers to them should not normally exceed 70 words each.
• Question Nos. 10-12 and 22-24 are long answer type questions, carrying 6 marks each.
Answers to them should not normally exceed 100 words each.
• Answers should be brief and to the point and the above word limit be adhered to as far as possible.

Section – A

Question 1.
What is the formula for computing Marginal Rate of Transformation?

Question 2.
Raj Mohan runs a clutch plate manufacturing unit and is currently operating in the second stage of law of variable proportion. State any one measure that can be adopted by him so that the transition to third stage is delayed.

Question 3.
“Total product always increases whether there is increasing returns or diminishing returns to a factor.” Is the given statement true or false? Give reason.

Question 4.
When Marginal Revenue is zero, Total Revenue is
(a) increasing
(b) diminishing
(c) maximum
(d) minimum

Question 5.
Briefly discuss the causes of economic problem.
Or
Diagrammatically illustrate the impact of import substitution policy on the Production Possibility Curve (PPC) of India.

Question 6.
Given below is the utility schedule of a consumer for commodity X. The price of the commodity is ₹ 6 per unit. How many units should the consumer purchase to maximise satisfaction? (Assume that the utility is expressed in utils and 1 util = ₹ 1).

 Consumption (units) Total Utility (utils) Marginal Utility (utils) 1 10 10 2 18 8 3 25 7 4 31 6 5 34 3 6 34 0

Question 7.
Explain the effect of the following on elasticity of supply of the good :
(i) Nature of inputs used
(ii) Technique of production
Or
Distinguish between short-run and long-run production functions.

Question 8.
When the price of a commodity goes up by 10%, a consumer’s demand falls from 500 units to 400 units. Calculate the Price Elasticity of Demand (Ed).

Question 9.
Explain the implications of the following features of perfect competition.
(i) Large number of buyers and sellers.
(ii) Freedom of entry and exit of the firm.

Question 10.
How is equilibrium price determined? How is it affected by changes in demand for the commodity?

Question 11.
What is meant by price elasticity of demand? Explain briefly any five factors affecting elasticity of demand.
Or
Why is a consumer in equilibrium, only at the point of tangency of the budget line with an indifference curve?

Question 12.
State whether the following statements are true or false. Give reasons for your answer.
(i) When Marginal Revenue (MR) is constant and not equal to zero, then Total Revenue (TR) will also be constant.
(ii) As soon as Marginal Cost (MC) starts rising, Average Variable Cost (AVC) also starts rising.
(iii) Marginal Product (MP) starts diminishing from the point of inflexion.

Section B

Question 13.
What is capital expenditure in the government budget?

Question 14.
Which of these is not an example of direct tax?
(a) Wealth tax
(b) Income tax
(c) Sales tax
(d) Corporation tax

Question 15.
The total deposits of commercial banks are ₹ 1,00,000 crore, while the money created by commercial banks is ₹ 50,00,000 crore. Find the value of Legal Reserve Ratio.

Question 16.
What are the components of measurement of money supply?

Question 17.
“Country ‘Z’ is operating at full employment equilibrium.” What are the implications of this statement? Identify the economic value being followed by the country.

Question 18.
Investment demand includes financial investment like purchase of shares from secondary market. Do you agree?
Or
Explain consumption function with the help of a diagram.

Question 19.
If the real GDP is ₹ 3,000 and price index is 175, then calculate the nominal GDP. What does the price index of 175 indicate?

Question 20.
Explain the problem of double coincidence of wants faced under Barter System. How money has solved this problem?
Or
Describe the evolution of money.

Question 21.
Government has started spending more on providing free services like education and health to the poor. Explain the economic value it reflects.

Question 22.
Calculate Gross National Product at Factor Cost by
(i) Income method and
(ii) Expenditure method from the following data.

 S. No. Contents (₹) in crores (i) Net Domestic Capital Formation 500 (ii) Compensation of Employees 1,850 (iii) Consumption of Fixed Capital 100 (iv) Government Final Consumption Expenditure 1,100 (V) Private Final Consumption Expenditure 2,600 (Vi) Rent 400 (vii) Dividend 200 (viii) Interest 500 (ix) Net Exports (-)100 (X) Profits 1,100 (xi) Net Factor Income from Abroad (-)50 (xii) Net Indirect Taxes 250

Identify the economic value involved in the estimation of national income.

Question 23.
Given below is the Consumption Function (C) in an economy.
C = 200 + Y
With the help of a numerical example, show that in this economy, as income increases Average Propensity to Consume (APC) will decrease.
Or
The savings function of an economy is S = – 200 + Y. The economy is in equilibrium when income is equal to ₹ 2,000. Calculate
(i) Investment Expenditure at Equilibrium Level of Income (I)
(ii) Autonomous Consumption ($$\overline { C }$$)
(iii) Investment Multiplier (K)

Question 24.
(i) Other thing? remaining constant, explain the impact of rise in foreign currency on national income.
(ii) Give any three points of difference between depreciation of currency and devaluation of currency.

Marginal Rate of Transformation
$$=\frac { Units\quad of\quad Good\quad Y\quad Sacrified\quad \left( \triangle Y \right) }{ Units\quad od\quad Good\quad X\quad Gained\quad \left( \triangle X \right) }$$

By improving the technology of production, Raj Mohan can delay the transition to the third state of law of variable proportion.

The given statement is true. In stages of increasing and diminishing returns, total product rises because in these stages marginal product is positive.

(c) Maximum

Economic problem arises due to the following reasons :

1. Human “Wants are Unlimited Human wants are unlimited as it is a repetitive process in which wants get increased by consuming goods and sen/ices. Fulfillment of one want leads to the surfacement of another want.
2. Resources are Limited Resources are limited in supply in relation to their demand. Scarcity is the basic feature of every economy. No economy can be self-sufficient in everything. Scarcity is a universal phenomenon, which continues indefinitely. The scarcity of resources creates economic problem for every country in the world.
3. Resources have Alternative Uses The resources are not only scarce in supply but they also have alternative uses. e.g. land can be used to produce wheat or to rice or to build a hospital or a school. A choice between the alternative uses of land has to be made. This problem of choice leads to an economic problem.

Or
Import substitution policy means producing goods in the country rather than importing from rest of the world. To produce more output, now inputs are being imported which increases the resources of the country. Consequently, production possibility curve would shift right from ab to a1b1.

The consumer will purchase 4 units because at this consumption level, Marginal Utility (MU) is equal to the price. At consumption level of less than 4 units, MU is greater than price. Therefore, there is a scope of increasing gain by purchasing more. If he buys more than 4 units, MU becomes less than the price. Therefore, there is a scope of increasing gain by purchasing less, so consumer maximises satisfaction at 4 units of consumption of commodity X.

The effect of the following on elasticity of supply of the good is as follows:

1. Nature of Inputs Used The Elasticity of Supply depends on the nature of inputs used for the production of a commodity. If commonly available inputs are used, supply will be elastic, but in case of scarcely available inputs, the supply will be inelastic.
2. Technique of Production In case of production of a commodity, supply will be less elastic if it involves the use of a complex and expensive technology. On the other hand, use of a simple technology facilitates quicker changes in output and supply.

Or
Difference between short-run production function and long-run production function are:

 Basis Short-run Production Function Long-run Production Function Nature of factors Some factors are variable while ” others are fixed. All factors are variable. Proportions type Short-period production function is of variable proportions type. Long-period production function is of constant proportions type. Scale of output Scale of output remains constant. Scale of output changes. Study of output behaviour Behaviour of output is studied with reference to ‘Returns to a factor’ or ‘Law of Variable Proportions. Behaviour of output is studied with reference to ‘Returns to scale’.

Given, Percentage change in price = 10%,
Initial Quantity (Q) = 500 units
New Quantity = 400 units
Change in Quantity (∆Q) = 400 – 500 = -100 units
Percentage change in quantity demanded

(i) Very Large Number of Buyers and Sellers A perfectly competitive market is dominated by very large number of buyers and sellers of a commodity. It means that there is no such buyer or seller in the market whose purchase or sale is so large as to impact the total sale or purchase in the market. Each buyer and seller has only a fractional share in the market demand and market supply respectively. Each buyer and seller has to accept the price as it is in the .market. Therefore, it is said that a firm under perfect competition is a price taker not a price maker.

(ii) Freedom of Entry and Exit of Firm Under perfect competition, a firm can enter or leave the industry anytime. In order to analyse the implications of this feature, we need to focus on short period and long period situation. Short period by definition, is too short for an existing firm to leave the industry or for a new firm to join the industry. Accordingly, the significance of this feature is restricted only to long period situations. Because of free entry and exit, firms in the long-run earn only normal profits. In case, extra normal profits are earned, new firms will join the industry. In this case, market supply will increase, market price will fall and extra normal profits will be wiped out. In case of extra normal losses, some of the existing firms will leave the industry. Market supply will decrease, market price will increase and extra normal losses will be wiped out. Hence, there will be neither supernormal profits nor losses in the long-run.

Equilibrium price is determined at a point where market demand is equal to market supply. Other things being equal, equilibrium price increases with an increase in demand and falls with a decrease in demand as shown in the following figure:

In the given figure, DD is the initial demand curve and SS is the supply curve. Initially, the equilibrium point is E. Corresponding to this point, equilibrium price is OP.
As demand increases, demand curve DD shifts rightwards to D1D1. Supply remaining the same, equilibrium point shifts to E1. At this point, the equilibrium price is OP1. which is higher than OP. As demand decreases, demand curve DD shifts leftwards to D2D2. Supply remaining the same, equilibrium point shifts to E2. At this point, the equilibrium price is OP2, which is lower than OP.

Price elasticity of demand measures the degree of responsiveness of quantity demanded of a commodity to a change in its price. Price Elasticity of Demand for a commodity is defined as the percentage change in quantity demanded for the commodity divided by the percentage change in its price.
Some of the important determinants of price elasticity of demand are as follows: (any five)

1. Nature of the Commodity Nature of the commodity is an important determinant of the price Elasticity of Demand. Necessities like food items and prestige goods have an inelastic demand, while luxuries and comforts have comparatively elastic demand.
2. Availability of Substitutes The demand for commodities having close substitutes is very elastic because if there is an increase in the price of the commodity, their people will start using substitute commodities.
3. Postponement of Consumption The demand for commodities is elastic, whose consumption can be postponed for sometime such as the demand of television, otherwise it is inelastic as in the case of medicines.
4. Different Uses of the Commodity A commodity which has several uses will have an elastic demand. On the other hand, a commodity having only one use will have inelastic demand, e.g. milk, steel, etc have elastic demand because they can be put to several uses.
5. Time Period Generally, longer the duration of period, greater will be the elasticity of demand because consumer have enough time to adjust their demand and vice-versa.
6. Habits If consumers are habituated of some commodities, the demand for such commodities will usually be inelastic, e.g. alcohol.
7. Proportion of Income Spent on the Goods Items such as toothpaste, needle will have an inelastic demand as consumers spend a small proportion of their income on such items. On the other hand, goods on which the consumers spend a large proportion of their income (cloth, food, etc) tend to have elastic demand.

Or
Consumer’s equilibrium is a point where budget line is tangent to Indifference Curve (IC) or equilibrium is achieved where slope of Indifference Curve is equal to the slope of budget line or price line.
Two conditions of the consumer’s equilibrium are given below:
(i) $$XY=\frac { { P }_{ X } }{ { P }_{ Y } }$$
(ii) At the point of equilibrium, Indifference Curve must be convex to the origin. It implies that at the point of equilibrium, MRS must be diminishing.

In the given diagram, E is the equilibrium point at which budget line touches the higher Indifference Curve IC2. Points ’A’ and ‘B’ lie on IC1, which offers lower level of satisfaction to the consumer and IC3 is not affordable as per the income of consumer and prices of the two goods.
So, the consumer is at equilibrium at point F’ only, where the indifference curve is tanget to the budget line.MM.

1. False, because when Marginal Revenue (MR) is constant, Total Revenue (TR) is increasing at a constant rate. Only when Marginal Revenue is zero, Total Revenue is constant.
2. False, Average Variable Cost (AVC) can fall even when Marginal Cost (MC) starts rising. In the figure given, MC is at its minimum at point ‘a’ and AVC is at its minimum at point Between points ‘a’ to ‘b’, MC is rising, but AVC is falling.
3. True, because point of inflexion is a point from where slope of Total Product (TP) changes. And, Slope of TP=MP. Therefore, from this point, MP stops increasing and starts diminishing.

Capital expenditure of the government budget refers to those expenditures of the government which either increase assets or reduce liabilities of the government.

(c) Sales tax because it is not levied directly on the income of the consumer or earner.

We know that,
Money created
= Deposits of Commercial Banks x $$\frac { 1 }{ LRR }$$
$$50,00,000=1,00,000\times \frac { 1 }{ LRR }$$
⇒ $$LRR=\frac { 1 }{ 50,00,000 }$$ = 0.02 or 2%

The components of M1 measurement of money supply (M1)=Currency (including notes and coins held by people) + Demand Deposits + Other Demand Deposits

The implications of this statement are as follows:

1. Aggregate demand is equal to aggregate supply in country ‘Z’.
2. In country ’Z’, resources are being utilised in an optimum manner.
Economic value being followed is that of best use of country’s resources.

No, I do not agree. The term investment demand refers to the demand for real investment and not financial investment. Real investment is concerned with the increase in stock of capital assets such as tools, equipments, inventories and also increase in stock of consumer goods. Thus, it does not include investment in shares and securities.
Or
The functional relationship between the consumption expenditure and the income is known as consumption function. Symbolically,
C = f (Y), which is read as, ‘Consumption is a function of income’.
Consumption function in terms of an algebric expression can be written as:
$$C=\overline { C } +bY$$
Where, C = Consumption expenditure
$$\overline { C }$$ = Autonomous consumption at zero level of income
b = Marginal Propensity to Consume
Y = Income
Let us understand it with the help of a diagram.

In the above diagram, point B represents the break-even point, where the consumption expenditure is equal to the income. To the left of point S, consumption is greater than income and to the right of point 6, consumption is less than income.

Given,
Real Gross Domestic Product = ₹ 3,000, and Price Index = 175
We know that,
Price Index = $$\frac { Nominal\quad GDP }{ Real\quad GDP } \times 100$$
$$\Rightarrow 175=\frac { Nominal\quad GDP }{ 3,000 } \times 100$$
Norminal GDP = 175 x 30
=₹ 5,250
The price index of 175 indicates that as compared to the base year, the prices have increased by 75%. in current year

Double Coincidence of Wants Barter system can only work, when both the persons are ready to exchange each other’s goods. For example, if a person has surplus rice and he wants wheat then he will have to find a person who has surplus wheat and wants rice. But usually this type of double coincidence is rare, especially in modern times.

Money has eliminated double coincidence of wants. In modern times, the buyer buys goods for money and the seller sells goods for money. So, the person having surplus rice can sell it in the market for money and from that money he can purchase wheat. So, money facilitates exchange of goods and services and helps in carrying on trade smoothly.
Or
The various forms that money took during the process of evolution are discussed below:

1. Commodity Money All sorts of commodities like pearls, sea-shells, salt etc have been used as a medium of exchange.
2. Animal Money Animals such as cow, goat, etc were used as a medium of exchange. .
3. Metallic Money Money made from metals like gold, silver, copper etc was called metallic money.
4. Paper Money Money made of paper is known as paper money.
5. Credit Money It refers to bank deposits with banks which are withdrawable through a cheque.
6. Plastic Money It is the modern form of money in the form of debit and credit cards.
7. Virtual Money It is the latest form of money which exists in web world. Bit coin is the example of virtual’money.

With the efforts of government in raising educational and health related services, level of health and education of poor people is expected to rise. This leads to a rise in human capital formation.
Efficiency of workers is expected to rise with improvement in their health and with improvement in their education, skill formation will take place.
Consequently, the level of technology tends to scale up due to which more research and innovations are facilitated.
Higher level of output is achieved with the same level of inputs. So, Production Possibility Curve (PPC) tends to shift to the right.

(i) By Income Method
Gross National Product at Factor Cost = Compensation of Employees + Rent + Interest + Profits ‘ + Net Factor Income from Abroad + Consumption of Fixed Capital
= 1,850 + 400 + 500 + 1,100 + (- 50) + 100
= 3,950 – 50 = ₹ 3,900 crore
(ii) By Expenditure Method
Gross National Product at Factor Cost = Private Final Consumption Expenditure + Government Final Consumption Expenditure + Net Domestic Capital Formation + Consumption of Fixed Capital + Net Exports + Net Factor Income from Abroad – Net Indirect Taxes
= 2,600 + 1,100+ 500 + 100 + (-100) + (-50) – 250
= 4,300 – 400 = ₹ 3,900 crore
The economic value involved in estimation of national income is to assess the level of economic development in the country.

Consumption Function (C) =200 + 0.75 Y
Suppose, Income (Y) in the economy is ₹ 400, ₹ 500 or ₹ 600
When Y = 400
C= 200 + 0.75 x 400 = ₹ 500
When, Y = 500
C= 200 + 0.75 x 500 = ₹ 575
When Y = 600
C= 200 + 0.75 x 600 = ₹ 650
Therefore,

 Income (Y) Consumption (C) APC (C /Y) 400 500 500/400 = 1.25 500 575 575/500 = 1.15 600 650 650/600 = 1.08

From the above table, it is clear that as income rises, Average Propensity to Consume (APC) decreases.
Therefore, as shown in the given example as income increases from ₹ 400 to ₹ 500 to ₹ 600,
APC decreases from 1.25 to 1.15 to 1.08, respectively.
Or
(i) Investment Expenditure Substituting the value of
Y in saving function,
We get
S = -200+ 0.25 x 2,000 = ₹ 300
At equilibrium level of income, S = /
So, / =₹ 300
Thus, investment expenditure at equilibrium level of income is ₹ 300.
where, S = Savings
/ = Investments, Y = National Income/Income
(ii) Autonomous Consumption
Consumption + Saving = Income … (i)
Autonomous consumption refers to that level of consumption expenditure where income is zero. Flere, if income (Y) = 0, Saving (S) = -200 Putting these value in equation (i), We get Consumption + (- 200) = 0
⇒ Consumption = ₹ 200 So, Autonomous Consumption = ₹ 200
(iii) investment Multiplier $$K=\frac { 1 }{ MPS }$$
From saving function, we know that
Marginal Propensity to Save (MPS) = 025
Investment Multiplier (K) = $$\frac { 1 }{ 0.25 } =4$$

(i) There is no direct impact on national income of a country with change in exchange rate. But change in exchange rate has an indirect impact on national income. When exchange rate rises, domestic currency depreciates. The foreign countries can now purchase more quantity of goods and services from the same amount of foreign currency from the domestic country. Imports tends to fall and exports tend to rise. Accordingly, aggregate demand tends to rise. A rise in AD may lead to a rise in national income.

(ii) Difference between depreciation and devaluation of currency are:

 Basis Depreciation of Currency Devaluation of Currency Market forces of demand and supply Depreciation of foreign currency is determined by market forces of demand and supply. Devaluation of foreign currency is not determined by market forces of demand and supply. Government intervention There is generally no direct intervention of government. Devaluation is generally done by government itself. Planning It is not planned at all. It is generally planned by government.

We hope the CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Economics Paper 6 help you. If you have any query regarding CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Economics Paper 6, drop a comment below and we will get back to you at the earliest.

## CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 Social Science Paper 1

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 Social Science Paper 1 are part of CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 Social Science. Here we have given CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 Social Science Paper 1.

## CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 Social Science Paper 1

 Board CBSE Class X Subject Social Science Sample Paper Set Paper 1 Category CBSE Sample Papers

Students who are going to appear for CBSE Class 10 Examinations are advised to practice the CBSE sample papers given here which is designed as per the latest Syllabus and marking scheme as prescribed by the CBSE is given here. Paper 1 of Solved CBSE Sample Paper for Class 10 Social Science is given below with free PDF download solutions.

General Instructions:

• The question paper has 27 questions in all. All questions are compulsory.
• Marks are indicated against each question.
• Questions from serial number 1 to 7 are very short answer questions. Each question carries 1 mark.
• Questions from serial number 8 to 18 are 3 marks questions. Answer of these questions should not exceed 80 words each.
• Questions from serial number 19 to 25 are 5 marks questions. Answer of these questions should not exceed 100 words each.
• Question number 26 and 27 are map questions of 2 marks from History and 3 marks from Geography. After completion, attach the maps inside the answer book

Question 1.
Which power dominated the nation-building process in Germany? ?
OR
Which idea, other than economic exploitation, was behind French colonisation of Vietnam?

Question 2.
State an important characteristic of the oldest Japanese book, Diamond Sutra.
OR
State the hotly debated issue around which the novel Indulekha revolved.

Question 3.
Wind energy received in abundance in western Rajasthan and Gujarat has not been so far utilised and developed to the maximum. It falls in which category of resources?

Question 4.
Write any one prudential reason for which power sharing is desirable.

Question 5.
Identify the condition when both the parties in a barter economy have to agree to sell and buy each other’s commodities? What is it called?

Question 6.
A group of companies in India wishes to import high quality ACs from South Korea but have to pay a huge import tax on them which would make the ACs very expensive leading to a decline their sale. Ascertain the role of the import tax in this situation.

Question 7.
Sania buys a packet of biscuits and finds details about ingredients used, price, batch number etc. printed on it except the expiry date. Under which right of the consumers she can claim to know this information from the manufacturer?

Question 8.
Ideas of national unity in early-nineteenth-century Europe were closely allied to the ideology of liberalism. What did it mean for the middle class in France? Explain.
OR
The French used school textbooks in Vietnam to justify colonial rule. Explain.
OR
What was the demand of Dr B.R. Ambedkar regarding the Dalits’ participation in the Civil Disobedience Movement? Why did he clash with Gandhiji in the Second Round Table Conference? How was it solved?

Question 9.
What was ‘Com Laws’? Why it was abolished? Mention its impacts on Britain.
OR
Who created the cotton mill? Discuss its effects on eighteenth century industrialization.
OR
‘Nineteenth century London was a city of clerks and shopkeepers, of small masters’. Who commented? Why?

Question 10.
Explain two reasons as to why power sharing is desirable.

Question 11.
Explain with example how social divisions affect politics.

Question 12.
Explain any four forms of Casteism in Indian Politics.

Question 13.
Explain the consequences of growing population on water resources in regions having ample water resources.

Question 14.
What is India’s rank among the world’s natural rubber producers? State the rainfall and temperature requirement of rubber. Also name the two states where rubber is mainly grown.

Question 15.
Explain the following terms:
(1) Infant Mortality Rate
(2) Net Attendance Ratio.

Question 16.
Write short note on W.T.O.

Question 17.
Explain any four problems faced by labourers in the unorganised sectors. Suggest any one
method to be adopted to protect the labourers in this sector.

Question 18.
What are demand deposits? Explain. What is the interesting facility provided by Demand
deposits? Give one example.

Question 19.
Write a short note on hand printing technology developed in Japan.
OR
Analyse the notable events that took place with the publication of Charles Dickens’s Pickwick Papers in 1836.

Question 20.
What is a Nation according to Ernst Renan? Discuss.
OR
“Nationalism in Vietnam emerged through the efforts of different sections of society to fight against the French and all they represented”. Explain how France occupied Vietnam.

Question 21.
Why is there a lack of internal democracy within the political parties in India? Explain with
examples.

Question 22.
“Different countries face different kinds of challenges.” Support the statement with suitable
examples.

Question 23.
State the length of the coastline of India. Name the first port that was build soon after the independence. Why was this port built? State two features of this port.

Question 24.
What are agglomeration economies? Explain the services/facilities offered by the agglomerationeconomies.

Question 25.
Explain any four rights of consumers that protect them from exploitation in the market place.

Question 26.
Two features A and B are marked on the given political outline map of India:
Identify these features with the help of the following information and write their correct names on the lines marked in the map:
A. The place where the Indian National Congress Session was held in 1927.
B. The place where the ‘No Tax Campaign’ was started.
OR
Locate and label on the same map given:
(1) The place where peasants organized a Satyagraha in 1917.
(2) Lahore

Question 27.
On the given same political outline map of India locate and label/identify the type of soil the following with appropriate symbols:
(1) Identity the type of soil in the shaded portion given in the map.
(2) Label and locate the largest producer of Ragi
(3) Label and locate Bhilai Steel Plant

Power of the Prussian State.
OR
The idea of a civilising mission.

Contained six sheets of text with woodcut illustrations
OR
The hotly debated issue was the marriage practices of upper-caste Hindus in Kerala.

Potential Resources.

It helps to reduce the possibility of conflict between social groups.

This is known as double coincidence of wants.

The Import tax is acting as a Trade Barrier.

Consumers’ right to be informed about the particulars of goods and services that they purchase

1. Dr B.R. Ambedkar believed that political empowerment would resolve the problems of social disabilities of the Dalits. (Separate Electorate)
2. In 1930, Dr B.R. Ambedkar clashed with Mahatma Gandhi at the Second Round Table Conference by demanding separate electorates for dalits.
3. Solved by the introduction of Poona Pact.

(1) The laws allowing the government to restrict the import of com were commonly known as the ‘Com Laws’.
(2) The industrialists and urban dwellers forced the abolition of the Com Laws because they were unhappy with high food prices.
(3) After the Com Laws were scrapped, food could be imported into Britain more cheaply.
OR
(1) Richard Arkwright created the cotton mill.
(2) The Effects:

• The costly new machines could be purchased, set up and maintained in the mill. Within the mill all the processes were brought together under one roof and management.
• This allowed a more careful supervision over the production process, a watch over quality, and the regulation of labour, all of which had been difficult to do when production was in the countryside.

OR
(1) Historian Gareth Stedman Jones commented that ‘Nineteenth century London was a city of clerks and shopkeepers, of small masters’.
(2) Reasons:

• The city of London was a powerful magnet for migrant populations, even though it did not have large factories.
• Apart from the London dockyards, five major types of industries employed large numbers: clothing and footwear, wood and furniture, metals and engineering, printing and stationery, and precision products such as surgical instruments, watches, and objects of precious metal.

Two different sets of reasons can be given in favour of power sharing.

1. Firstly, power sharing is good because it helps to reduce the possibility of conflict between social groups. Since social conflict often leads to violence and political instability, power sharing is a good way to ensure the stability of political order.
2. Second, there in a deeper reason why power sharing is good for democracies. Power sharing is the very spirit of democracy. People have a right to be consulted on how they
are to be governed. A legitimate government is one where citizens, through participation, acquire a stake in the system.
3. First reason is prudential and the second moral. While prudential reasons stress that power sharing will bring out better outcomes, moral reasons emphasise the very act of power sharing as valuable.

(1) At first sight, it would appear that the combination of politics and social divisions is very
dangerous and explosive.
(2) Democracy involves competition among various political parties. Their competition tends to divide any society.
(3) If they start competing in terms of some existing social divisions, it can make social divisions into political divisions and lead to conflict, violence or even disintegration of a country. This has happened in many countries.
Example: Unionist and Nationalist Parties in Ireland, Yugoslavia was divided into six independent states.

1. When parties choose candidates in elections, they keep in mind the caste composition of
the electorate and nominate candidates from different castes so as to muster necessary support to win elections.
2. When governments are formed, political parties usually take care that representatives of different castes and tribes find a place in it.
3. Political parties and candidates in elections make appeals to caste sentiment to muster support. Some political parties are known to favour some castes and are seen as their representatives.
4. Universal adult franchise and the principle of one-person-one-vote compe’Ud political leaders to gear up to the task of mobilising and securing political support.

(a) Many of our cities have ample water resources but are still facing water scarcity.
(b) Water scarcity may be an outcome of large and growing population and consequent greater demands for water and unequal access to it.
(c) A large population means more water not only for domestic use but also to produce more food.
(d) Hence, to facilitate higher food grain production, water resources are being over exploited to expand irrigated areas and dry season agriculture.

1. India’s rank: 4th
2. Rainfall: More than 200 cm annually
3. Temperature: Above 25°C.
4. States: Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka

1. Infant Mortality Rate (or IMR) indicates the number of children that die before the age of one year as a proportion of 100 live children bom in that particular year.
2. Net Attendance Ratio is the total number of children of age group 14 and 15 years attending school as a percentage of total number of children in the same age group.

(1) World Trade Organisation (W.T.O.) is an organisation whose aim is to liberalise
international trade. Started at the initiative of the developed countries, W.T.O. establishes rules regarding international trade, and sees that these rules are obeyed. Nearly 160 countries of the world are currently members of the W.T.O. (as on June 2014).
(2) Though W.T.O. is supposed to allow free trade for all, in practice, it is seen that the developed countries have unfairly retained trade barriers. On the other hand, W.T.O. rules have forced the developing countries to remove trade barriers. An example of this is the current debate on trade in agricultural products.

(1) The unorganised sector is characterised by small and scattered units which are largely outside the control of the government.
(2) There are rules and regulations but these are not followed.
(3) Jobs here are low-paid and often not regular. There is no provision for overtime, paid leave, holidays, leave due to sickness etc.
(4) Employment is not secure. People can be asked to leave without any reason.
(5) When there is less work, such as during some seasons, some people may be asked to leave.
(6) A lot also depends on the whims of the employer. This sector includes a large number of people who are employed on their own, doing small jobs such as selling on the street or doing repair work. Similarly, farmers work on their own and hire labourers as and when they need.
One method to be adopted to protect the labourers in this sector:

1. Rural Areas: farmers need to be supported through adequate facility for timely delivery of seeds, agricultural inputs, credit, storage facilities and marketing outlets.
2. In the urban areas: Small-scale industry also needs government’s support for procuring raw material and marketing of output. The casual workers in both rural and urban areas need to be protected.

(1) Working people, who have extra cash, deposit it with the banks by opening a bank account in their name. Banks accept the deposits and also pay an amount as interest on the deposits. In this way people’s money is safe with the banks and it earns an amount as interest. People also have the provision to withdraw the money as and when they require. Since the deposits in the bank accounts can be withdrawn on demand, these deposits are called demand deposits.
(2) The interesting facility provided by Demand deposits is the use of cheque.

(1) Buddhist missionaries from China introduced hand-printing technology into Japan around AD 768-770.
(2) The oldest Japanese book, printed in AD 868, is the Buddhist Diamond Sutra. Pictures were printed on textiles, playing cards and paper money.
(3) In medieval Japan, poets and prose writers were regularly published, and books were cheap and abundant.
OR
(1) In 1836 a notable event took place when Charles Dickens’s Pickwick Papers was serialised in a magazine.
(2) Magazines were attractive since they were illustrated and cheap.
Serialisation allowed readers to relish the suspense, discuss the characters of a novel and live for weeks with their stories – like viewers of television soaps today.

(1) In his essay Renan criticises the notion suggested by others that a nation is formed by a common language, race, religion, or territory.
(2) ‘A nation is the culmination of a long past of endeavours, sacrifice and devotion’.
(3) A nation is therefore a large-scale solidarity. Its existence is a daily plebiscite.
(4) A province is its inhabitants; if anyone has the right to be consulted, it is the inhabitant.
OR
(1) The colonisation of Vietnam by the French brought the people of the country into conflict with the colonisers in all areas of life.
(2) The most visible form of French control was military and economic domination but the French also built a system that tried to reshape the culture of the Vietnamese. French troops landed in Vietnam in 1858 and by the mid-1880s they had established a firm grip over the northern region.
(3) After the Franco-Chinese war the French assumed control of Tonkin and Anaam and. in 1887, French Indo-China was formed.
In the following decades the French sought to consolidate their position, and people in Vietnam began reflecting on the nature of the loss that Vietnam was suffering.

(1) All over the world there is a tendency in political parties towards the concentration of power in one or few leaders at the top.
(2) Parties do not keep membership registers, do not hold organisational meetings, and do not conduct internal elections regularly.
(3) Ordinary members of the party do not get sufficient information on what happens inside the party.
(4) Party members show more personal loyalty to the leaders than to the party principles to get favour from leaders who hold absolute power.
Defection: Changing party allegiance from the party on which a person got elected (to a legislative body) to a different party.

(1) Democracy faces three basic challenges during its different stages of growth, such as foundational challenge, challenge of expansion and challenge of deepening democracy. These challenges take different meanings and paths in different parts of the world.
(2) ‘Foundational Challenge’: The first stage is the transition to democracy from a non-democracy and then instituting democratic government.
Example: Nepal.
(3) Challenge of‘Expansion of Democracy’: This stage involves applying the basic principle of democratic governance across all the regions, different social groups and various institutions. Empowering various social groups, federal structures, women and minorities etc. This also means that less and less decisions should remain outside the democratic control. Most of the democracies like India and USA face this challenge.
(4) Challenge of‘Deepening of Democracy’: This involves strengthening of the institutions and practices of democracy by people’s participation and control. This should happen in such a way that people can realise their expectations of democracy. This requires an attempt to bring down the control and influence of the rich and powerful in making governmental decisions.

(1) Length of coastline: 7516.6 km.
(2) First port after independence: Kandla, Gujarat
(3) Reason: To ease the volume of trade on the Mumbai port, in the wake loss of Karachi port to Pakistan after the partition.
(4) Feature of Kandla sea port:

• It is a tidal port.
•  It provide services of export and import to the northern states across Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana etc.

(1) Many industries tend to come together to make use of the advantages offered by the urban centres known as agglomeration economies.
(2) Services/facilities:
(a) Banking:
Numerous banks tend to emerge in and around agglomeration economies. This service facilitates the progress of manufacturing industries.

(b) Transport: Transport is essential for each and every industry. Agglomeration economies offer great source of services by road or rail connecting urban centres and market places.

(c) Labour: Labour is an essential requirement for any industry. As agglomeration economies expand, large number of skilled and unskilled labourers starts offering their services to the industry in the area.

Rights of consumers:

1. Right to information
2. Right to seek redressal
3. Right to choose
4. Right to be heard
5. Right to safety

We hope the CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 Social Science Paper 1 help you. If you have any query regarding CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10 Social Science Paper 1, drop a comment below and we will get back to you at the earliest.

## CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Economics Paper 5

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Economics Paper 5 are part of CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Economics. Here we have given CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Economics Paper 5.

## CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Economics Paper 5

 Board CBSE Class XII Subject Economics Sample Paper Set Paper 5 Category CBSE Sample Papers

Students who are going to appear for CBSE Class 12 Examinations are advised to practice the CBSE sample papers given here which is designed as per the latest Syllabus and marking scheme as prescribed by the CBSE is given here. Paper 5 of Solved CBSE Sample Paper for Class 12 Economics is given below with free PDF download solutions.

Time : 3 hrs
M.M.: 80

General Instructions

• All questions in both the sections A and B are compulsory. However, there is internal choice in questions of 3,4 and 6 marks.
• Question Nos. 1-4 and 13-16 are very short answer type questions, carrying 1 mark each.
They are required to be answered in one sentence each.
• Question Nos. 5-6 and 17-18 are short answer I type questions, carrying 3 marks each.
Answers to them should not normally exceed 60 words each.
• Question Nos. 7-9 and 19-21 are short answer II type questions, carrying 4 marks each.
Answers to them should not normally exceed 70 words each.
• Question Nos. 10-12 and 22-24 are long answer type questions, carrying 6 marks each.
Answers to them should not normally exceed 100 words each.
• Answers should be brief and to the point and the above word limit be adhered to as far as possible.

Section – A

Question 1.
What is meant by foregone cost in microeconomics?

Question 2.
The marginal revenue curve cuts the horizontal line between 7-axis and the demand curve into
(a) two unequal parts
(b) two equal parts
(c) Either (a) or (b)
(d) None of these

Question 3.
What is the relation between marginal cost and average cost when average cost is rising?

Question 4.
How production function establishes a technical relationship and not an economic relationship?

Question 5.
Price Elasticity of Demand (Ed) of a commodity is 2. If the quantity demanded increases by 1%, what is the percentage change in price?

Question 6.
State the conditions in which the production possibility curve can rotate outwards.
Or
Explain the major differences between the two branches of economics.

Question 7.
State the Law of Demand and the assumptions of Law of Demand.
Or
Discuss in brief the various kinds of demand.

Question 8.
The Price Elasticity of Supply s of good X is half of the Price Elasticity of Supply of good Y. A 10% rise in the price of good Y results in a rise in its supply from 400 units to 520 units. Calculate the percentage change in quantity supplied of good X when its price falls from ₹ 10 to ₹ 8 per unit.

Question 9.
Write any four points of difference between price making firm and price taking firm.

Question 10.
What do you understand by demand schedule and demand curve? Explain with the help of an example and a diagram.

Question 11.
State whether the following statements are true or false. Give reasons.
(i) When there are diminishing returns to a factor, Marginal Product and Total Product both diminishes.
(ii) When Marginal Revenue (MR) is positive and constant, Average Revenue (AR) and Total Revenue (TR) both will increase at constant rate.
(iii) As output is increased, the difference between Average Total Cost (ATC) and Average < Variable Cost (AVC) falls and ultimately becomes zero.
Or
State whether the following statements are true or false. Give reasons.
(i) As output increases, Average Cost (AC) tends to be closer to Average Variable Cost (AVC).
(ii) Average Cost (AC) is more consistent than Marginal Cost (MC).
(iii) When Marginal Revenue (MR) is zero, Average Revenue becomes maximum.

Question 12.
Maruti, Tata, Fiat, Ford and GM are only a few auto producers in .the Indian market. Identify the form of market in which they sell their products and also explain its features. If these companies decide to form a cartel, then will the consumer stand to benefit?

Section – B

Question 13.
Kuzira is a remote village in South Africa where people use animal skins to purchase goods. Which form of money is being used by them?

Question 14.
The estimated income receipts of the government in the budget of 2016 – 17 is ₹ 25,000 crore and its estimated expenditure is ₹ 27,500 crore. The budget of the government is
(a) balanced
(b) deficit
(c) surplus
(d) None of these

Question 15.
If borrowings and other liabilities are added to the budget deficit, we get
(a) fiscal deficit ,
(b) primary deficit
(c) capital deficit
(d) revenue deficit

Question 16.
Name the rate at which Central Bank gives loan to commercial banks for short-term.

Question 17.
Which of the following cannot have a negative value? Give reasons for your answer.
(i) Average propensity to save
(ii) Marginal propensity to save

Question 18.
Derive the formula,
$$K=\frac { 1 }{ MPS }$$
where K = Investment multiplier
MPS = Marginal Propensity to save
Or
Complete the following table :

 Consumption Expenditure (₹) Savings (₹) Income (₹) Marginal Propensity to Consume 100 50 150 — 175 75 — — 250 100 — — 325 125 — —

Question 19.
Identify the three phases of circular flow and identify the type of data that is required to measure National Income at each of the three phases of circular flow?

Question 20.
Anthony and Ajay were having a conversation on the topic of ‘money supply’. Anthony was of the view that since money supply consists of supply it is a flow concept, whereas Ajay was of the view that it is a stock concept. In your view, which of the two is correct? Why? Also explain the concept of money supply.
Or
Explain the following functions of the Central Bank.
(i) Bank of issue
(ii) Custodian of Foreign Exchange Reserves

Question 21.
Classify the following as revenue receipts and capital receipts. Justify your answer.
(i) Profit of public sector undertakings.
(ii) Market borrowing by the government.
(iii) Income from sale of its share in public sector undertakings.
(iv) Income from sale of spectrum.

Question 22.
Explain the steps taken in derivation of consumption curve from saving curve. Use diagram.
Or
Explain the steps taken in the derivation of saving curve from the consumption curve. Use diagram.

Question 23.
Calculate ‘Gross National Product at Factor Cost’ (GNPFC) from the following data by
(i) Income Method and
(ii) Expenditure Method.

 S.No. Items (₹) in crores (i) Private Final Consumption Expenditure 1,000 (ii) Net Domestic Capital Formation 200 (iii) Profits 400 (iv) Compensation of Employees 800 (V) Rent 250 (Vi) Government Final Consumption Expenditure 500 (vii) Consumption of Fixed Capital 60 (viii) Interest 150 (ix) Net Current Transfers from Rest of the World (—) 80 (x) Net Factor Income from Abroad (—) 10 (xi) Net Exports (—) 20 (xii) Net Indirect Taxes 80

Question 24.
Distinguish
(i) between autonomous and accommodating transactions of Balance of Payments account and
(ii) between current account and capital account.

Forgone cost for a commodity is the amount of the other commodity that has been foregone in order to produce the first or in other words, it is the cost of next best opportunity foregone.

(b) Two equal parts

When average cost rises, the marginal cost also rises and it exceeds the average cost.

Production function does not establish any economic relation between inputs and output. It only establishes a technical relation between inputs and output as it is only engineers (and not economists) who tells that ‘x’ variable factors with y fixed factors will produce a maximum of ‘z’ units of acommodity. Thus, production function connects inputs and output technically.

Here, Price Elasticity of Demand (Ed) = 2
Percentage change in quantity demanded = 1%
Percentage change in price = ?

⇒ Percentage change in price = $$\frac { 1 }{ 2 }$$ or 0.5%

The production possibility curve will rotate outward under the following two conditions:
(i) Improvement in technology in favour of one commodity.
(ii) Growth of resources for the production of one commodity.

Or

The two branches of economics are microeconomics and macroeconomics.
Difference between microeconomics and macroeconomics are :

 Basis Microeconomics Macroeconomics Meaning It is that branch of economics which studies individual economic variables like demand, supply, price, etc. It is that branch of economics which studies aggregate economic variables like aggregate demand/supply, price level, etc. Basic parameter The basic parameter of microeconomics is price. The basic parameter of macroeconomics is national income. Scope Since, it operates on individual level, it has a narrow scope. Since, it operates with a high degree of aggregation, it has a very wide scope.

The Law of Demand states that other factors remaining constant, the demand for a commodity expands with fall in its price and contracts with rise in its price. In other words, Law of Demand states that there is an inverse relationship between the price of a commodity and its quantity demanded.
Assumptions of the Law of Demand are as follows:

1. There should be no change in the price of substitute or complementary goods.
2. There should be no change in the income of the consumer.
3. There should be no change in the taste, preference and habit of the consumer.
4. There should be no change in number of family members, government policy, etc.
5. There should be no change in the distribution of income.
6. No expectation of further changes in the availability of a commodity.

Or
The various kinds of demand are as follows:

1. Price Demand It refers to the quantity demanded of a commodity in relation to its price, other things remaining unchanged, e.g. with decrease in price, demand for normal good rises.
2. Income Demand It refers to the demand of a commodity in relation to income of the consumer, other things remaining constant, e.g. with increase in income, demand for normal good rises.
3. Cross Demand It refers to the relationship between the price of a commodity and demand for related goods, other things being constant, e.g. with increase in price of one commodity (tea), demand for its substitute commodity (coffee) rises.
4. Derived Demand When demand for one commodity is derived from demand for some other
commodity, then it is known as derived demand, e.g. demand for house leads to demand for cement, bricks, etc.

Given, for good Y,
Initial Quantity (Q)=400 units; New Quantity (Q1) = 520 units
Change in Quantity (∆Q) = Q1 – Q = 520 – 400 = 120 units
Percentage Change in Quantity Supplied of $$Y=\frac { \triangle Q }{ Q } \times 100=\frac { 120 }{ 400 } \times 100=30$$%
Percentage Change in Price of Y =10% (given)

Percentage change in quantity supplied of X = 1.5 x -20 = -30
Therefore, supply of X falls by 30%.

Difference between price making firm (monopoly) and price taking firm (perfect competition) are :

 Basis Monopoly Perfect Competition Meaning It refers to the market where there is a single seller or producer selling a particular good in the market. It refers to the market where there are large number of sellers, selling homogeneous goods. Degree of elasticity Firm’s demand curve under monopoly is relatively less elastic. Firm’s demand curve under perfect competition is perfectly elastic. Slope of demand curve Demand curve slopes downward with low elasticity and is steeper. Demand curve is a horizontal straight line parallel to the X-axis. Diagrammatic presentation Demand curve for monopoly firm. Demand curve for perfectly competitive firm.

Demand Schedule It is a table showing different quantities of goods that people are prepared to buy at different levels of price. In other words, the Law of Demand or demand function stated in a tabular form is termed as demand schedule.
Demand schedule can further be classified as follows:
(i) Individual Demand Schedule The schedule that shows the demand by an individual household for a commodity at different prices is known as individual demand schedule.
Example of individual demand schedule :

 Price of Milk (₹ per litre) 4 3 2 1 Mohan’s Demand for Milk (litre) 2 3 5 8

(ii) Market Demand Schedule The schedule that shows the demand of all the households for a commodity at different prices is known as market demand schedule.
Example of market demand schedule:

 Price of Milk (₹ per litre) Mohan’s Demand for Milk (in litre) Sohan’s Demand for Milk (in litre) Market Demand for Milk (in litre) 4 1 1 1+1 = 2 3 3 2 3+2 = 5 2 5 4 5+4 = 9 1 7 5 7+5 = 12

(Note It has been assumed that market consists of two households only)
Demand Curve A demand curve is the graphical representation of demand schedule showing the relationship between price of the commodity and its demand. It is a downward sloping curve.
Demand curve is of two types as given below:
(i) Individual Demand Curve A curve which shows the various quantities of a commodity demanded by a particular household at various levels of price is known as individual demand curve. It is the graphical representation of individual demand schedule.

(ii) Market Demand Curve
Market demand curve is the horizontal summation of individual demand curve i.e. it is a curve which shows the various quantities of a commodity demanded by the whole market at various prices. It is the graphical representation of market demand schedule.

1. The statement is false.
When there are diminishing returns to a factor, Marginal Product diminishes but Total Product increases at a diminishing rate.
2. The statement is false.
When Marginal Revenue (MR) is positive and constant, Total Revenue (TR) increases at a constant rate. AR tends to be equal to MR. i.e. remain constant.
3. The statement is false.
As output increases, the difference between Average Total Cost
(ATC) and Average Variable Cost (AVC) falls but can never be zero. The difference is equal to Average Fixed Cost (AFC) which remains positive, even when it is falling.

Or

1. The statement is true.
We know that AC = AFC + AVC. As output increases, AFC continuously fall, because TFC is constant. Consequently, the component of AFC in AC tends to shrink. This brings AC closer to AVC.
2. The statement is true. AC is more consistent because it is not directly affected by the law of variable proportion. On the other hand, MC is directly affected by law of variable proportion due to which it is narrow ‘IT shaped curve whereas, AC curve is wide ‘U’ shaped curve.
3. The statement is false.
When Marginal Revenue is zero, Average Revenue will be diminishing.

These cbmpanies sell their products in oligopoly market. Oligopoly is a form of market in which there are a few big sellers of a commodity and a large number of buyers.
Its main features are explained below ;

1. A Few Firms A few firms, but large in size dominate the market for a commodity. Each firm commands a significant share of the market which can impact market price of the product.
2. Large Number of Buyers There are a large number of buyers of a commodity. The number is so large that no individual buyer can impact market price of the product.
3. Formation of Cartels With a view to avoid competition, firms may form a cartel. It is a formal agreement among the firms to avoid price competition.
4. Non-price Competition Under oligopoly, firms tend to avoid price competition, e.g. in India, both Coke and Pepsi sell soft drink at the same price. However, in order to enhance its share of the market, each firm tries to resort to non-price competition.

If these companies form cartel, then this would lead to non-price competition and the consumer would be exploited.

Section – B

The natives of Kuzira village are using commodity money.

(b) Deficit

(a) Fiscal deficit

Repo rate is the rate at which Central Bank gives loan to the commercial banks for 1 to 14 days against approved securities.

1. Average Propensity to Save (APS) represents the ratio between savings and income. When consumption expenditure is more than income then it gives rise to negative savings or dis-savings. In this case, APS . will be negative.
2. Marginal Propensity to Save (MPS) represents the ratio between change in savings and change in income. As such, its value cannot be negative. Its value ranges between 0 and 1. If the whole of income is spend on consumption, then MPS is zero. On the other hand, if whole of income is saved then MPS is one.

The three phases of circular flow of income are the production phase, the income phase and the expenditure phase.
The following data is required to measure national income at each of the three phases of circular flow :

1. Production Phase The data relating to Net Value Added at Factor Cost in primary, secondary and tertiary sectors and Net Factor Income from Abroad.
2. Income Phase The data relating to net interest, net rent, net profit and net wages and Net Factor Income from Abroad.
3. Expenditure Phase The data relating to private consumption expenditure, government consumption
expenditure, gross domestic capital formation, net exports, depreciation, Net Indirect Taxes and Net Factor Income from Abroad.

Ajay was correct, as supply of money is a stock concept. It refers to total stock of money held by the people of a country at a point of time.
Supply of money includes only that stock of money which is held by those who demand money and not those who supply money. Therefore, supply of money does not include:

1. Stock of money held by the government.
2. Stock of money held by.the banking system of a country.
It is because government and the banking system of a country are suppliers of money.

Or

1. Bank of Issue The Central Bank of a country has the sole authority of issuing currency notes and coins in that country. All the currency issued by the Central Bank are unlimited legal tenders. No other commercial bank or financial institution can issue these currency notes except Central Bank. Flence, the Central Bank is also known as Bank of Issue. ‘
2. Custodian of Foreign Exchange Reserves Central Bank is the custodian of nation’s foreign exchange reserve. The Central Bank maintains foreign exchange reserves in order to promote international trade and stabilise exchange rate to an agreed limit through managed floating.

1. Profit of public sector undertakings is a revenue receipt, because it neither creates liability nor reduces assets of government.
2. Market borrowing by government is a capital receipt, because it creates a liability for the government in the form of borrowing from public.
3. Receipt/Income from sale of its share in public sector undertaking is a capital receipt, as it causes reduction in assets of the government.
4. Income from sale of spectrum is a non-tax source of revenue receipt, as it does not lead to reduction in assets and does not create liability for the government.

Steps taken for derivation of consumption curve are:

1. At zero level of income, the saving is OS which is the amount of autonomous consumption. So, OS = OC. Hence, the consumption will start from the point C.
2. We draw a 45° line passing through the origin which shows that C = Y. This is the income line.
3. Now we draw a vertical line from the point E, where saving is zero. At zero level of saving, C = Y, so B is the break-event point.
4. The consumption curve is derived meeting C and B and extending it forward.

Or
Steps taken for derivation of saving curve are:

1. At zero level of income (Y), the autonomous consumption is OC. If we take the vertical distance between the consumption curve, CC and income line at zero level of income, then OS =OC. Hence, the saving curve starts from the point S on the negative Y-axis.
2. The consumption curve intersects income line at point B. B is the break-even point where consumption is equal to income (C = Y). At this point, saving will be zero as all the income is consumed. Hence, the saving curve will intersect the X-axis (at point E) at this income level.
3. The consumption is less than income beyond point E. It means the excess income after consumption is saved and hence, the saving curve moves toward positive direction above X-axis with the increase in the level of income.

(i) Income Method
Net Domestic Product at Factor Cost (NDPFC) = Compensation of Employees + Operating Surplus
(Profits + Rent + Interest) + Mixed Income
= 800 + (400 + 250 + 150) + 0 = 800 + 800
= ₹ 1,600 crore
Gross National Product at Factor Cost (GNPFC)
= NDPFC+Net Factor Income from Abroad + Depreciation
= 1,600 + (-10) + 60 = 1,660 -10 = ₹ 1,650 crore
(ii) Expenditure Method
Gross Domestic Product at Market Price (GDPMP)
= Private Final Consumption Expenditure + Government Final Consumption Expenditure + Gross Domestic Capital Formation + Net Exports
= 1,000 + 500 + (200 + 60) + (-20)
= 1,000 + 500 + 260 – 20 = ₹ 1,740 crore
Gross National Product at Factor Cost (GNPFC)= GDPMP – Net Indirect Taxes + Net Factor Income from Abroad (NFIA)
= 1,740 – 80 + (-10) = 1,740 – 90
= ₹ 1,650 crore