## Online Education for Invitation and Replies Class 12 Format, Examples

Invitations are of two kinds:

• Formal ➝ invitation card/letter ➝ In a fixed format
• Informal ➝ A letter or a note ➝ Free handwriting

This grammar section explains English grammar in a clear and simple way. There are example sentences to show how the language is used. NCERT Solutions for Class 12 English will help you to write better answers in your Class 12 exams. Because the Solutions are solved by subject matter experts. https://ncertmcq.com/invitation-and-replies-class-12/

Invitation Class 12

Formal invitations are sent to relatives, friends, acquaintances, etc. on social occasions.
A simple yet elegant printed card is preferred.

Invitations are written in the third person.
Example:

• Mr. and Mrs. S. Surendran request the pleasure of the company of Mr. and Mrs. Rajkumar…………….

Note that the English etiquette requires the husband’s name to be written first.
Example:

• Mr. and Mrs. G. Joseph

Avoid the use of abbreviations for the names of guests, days, dates. However, the abbreviation RSVP (Respondezs’il Vous plait) which means “Please Reply’ is put at the bottom.

The subject matter is written in the centre setting. Details such as an address, dress code, or any other instructions are written at the bottom to the left or the right as per choice or convenience.

Invitation Format Class 12

♦ Sample Invitations

1. Formal Invitation (4marks)

Informal Invitation (4marks)

Formal Invitation Class 12

2. Formal Invitation (4marks)

Informal Invitation (4marks)

Formal And Informal Invitation Class 12

3. Sample Formal Invitation (4marks)

Invitation Writing Class 12

4. Formal Invitation – Letter Format (Format-Similar to a formal letter) (4marks)

Formal Invitation Format Class 12

5. Formal Invitation (4marks)

Invitation And Replies Class 12

6. Informal Invitation (4marks)

Informal Invitation Class 12

7. Sample Formal Invitation (4marks)

Informal Invitation (4marks)

♦ Informal Invitation:

Invitation Format Question 8.
Vikasananda School, Bhamti, Nagpur is celebrating its Annual Prize Distribution Function on 14 August. As Mr. Gopinath Munde, Principal of the school, draft an invitation, in not more than 50 words, to be sent to the parents and guests.

 (a) …………………………………………………………………………………………………… of (b) …………………………………………………………………………………………………… cordially invite (c) …………………………………………………………………………………………………… to (d) …………………………………………………………………………………………………… (e) …………………………………………………………………………………………………… (f) …………………………………………………………………………………………………… Brig. R.K. Gadhoke, Chairman, ‘Managing Committee (g) …………………………………………………………………………………………………… (h) ……………………………………………………………………………………………………

(a) The Principal, staff, and students
(b) Vikasananda School, Bhamti, Nagpur
(c) (Name)
(d) The Annual Prize Distribution Function
(e) at 4.00 p.m. on Friday, 14 August 2015
(f) in the Air Force Auditorium, Bharti
(g) has kindly consented to be the Chief Guest
(h) and give away the prizes.

Invitation Reply Class 12 Question 2.
You are the President, Literary Society of Sunshine International School. Draft an invitation to the author, Ms. Manjul Bajaj requesting her to conduct a workshop on creative writing in your school. You are Romi/Rohit. (4 marks)

 Dear Ms. Manjul Bajaj To encourage literary skills among students, our school is celebrating Tolstoy Week from August 1-August 7, 20XX. We would be grateful if you could grace the occasion and conduct a workshop on creative writing in our school. For any further clarification, please contact Mr. Ramakant Mishra, The Principal at 9543210671. Venue: School Conference Hall, Sunshine International School, Dwarka, New Delhi Time: 10 a.m. Date: 3 August, 20XX Romi President Literary Society Sunshine International School Dwarka, New Delhi

Formal Invitation Format Question 3.
On 30th November your school is going to hold its Annual Sports Day. You want Mr. Dhanraj Pillai, a noted hockey player to give away the prizes to the budding sportspersons of the school. Write a formal invitation in about 50 words requesting him to grace the occasion. You are Karuna/Karan, Sports Secretary, Sunrise Global School, Agra. (4 marks) [CBSE (AT) 2016]

 The Principal, Staff, and Students of Sunrise Global School Cordially invite Mr. Dhanraj Pillai to grace us on our Annual Sports Day and give away the prizes to the budding sportspersons of our school. For any further clarification, please contact Mr. Ramakant Mishra, The Principal at 9543210671. Venue: School Ground Time: 10 a.m. Date: 30th November, 20XX R.S.V.P. Karuna Sports Secretary Sunrise Global School Agra

Informal Invitation Question 4.
Sunrise Global School, Agra is going to organise a one-act play competition in the school auditorium. You have decided to invite noted stage artiste, Nalini to grace the occasion. Draft a formal invitation for her in about 50 words. You are Karuna/Karan, Cultural Secretary. (4 marks) [CBSE Delhi 2016]

 The Cultural Club Sunshine Global School Cordially invites Padmashri Ms. Nalini (Danseuse) To grace the “TAGORE WEEK Celebrations” “One Act Play Competition” Venue: School auditorium Time: 10 a.m Date: 3 April, 20XX R.S.V.P. Karuna Cultural Secretary Sunshine Global School Agra. 984xxxx001

Invitation Class 12 Format Question 5.
You are Dhruv/Deepa. Your father, Shri Dheeraj Garg of Gurugram wants you to draft an invitation to be sent to friends and relatives on the occasion of your elder sister’s marriage. Prepare the invitation giving necessary details in not more than 50 words. (4 marks) [CBSE (1/2/1) 2019]

 Mr. and Mrs. Dheeraj Garg request the pleasure of your company on the auspicious occasion of their daughter Kanika (D/o Mr. and Mrs. Dheeraj Garg, Gurugram) With KUNAL (S/o Mr. and Mrs. Amber Sharma, Gurugram) On Saturday, February 22, 20XX At Tivoli Gardens, Gurugram Programme Saturday, February 22, 20XX Reception of Baraat: 8 p.m. R.S.V.P. Mr. and Mrs. Dheeraj Garg  Contact no: 98xxxxxxxxx With best compliments from All relatives and friends

♦ Replies:

A reply to an invitation is as formal as the invitation itself. A reply to an invitation is essential to appreciate the host’s feelings and letting the host know whether you are attending the function or not. This helps him/her to make arrangements accordingly.

♦ Main Characteristics:

The reply to an invitation must acknowledge the invitation by expressing thanks. The reply should mention whether the invitation has been accepted or refused (specify reason) using a warm and specific language. The reply should be brief and specific. Do remember to include greetings like ‘Best Wishes’ in case you are declining the invitation.

Invitations And Replies Class 12

♦ Sample Formal Replies

Accepting the Invitation (Formal) (4 marks)

 Mr. Vipin thanks Mr & Mrs. Khanna for their kind invitation to their daughter Aditi’s marriage on 20th January, 20XX at 10 a.m. and has great pleasure in accepting it and confirms his presence at the venue of the scheduled time.

Declining the Invitation (Formal) (4 marks)

 Mr Vipin thanks Mr & Mrs Khanna for their kind invitation to their daughter! Aditi’s marriage on 20th January, 20XX at 10 a.m. but regrets his inability to attend due to a prior engagement. He wishes Aditi a happy married life.

Sample Informal Replies
Accepting the invitation (4 marks)

 21, Professors’Colony, Coimbatore 10th January, 20XXDear Nirbhay and Bhabhiji, I am pleasantly surprised to receive your invitation to Aditi’s wedding. Has she grown so big? I still remember her as the little girl with two ponytails in a pink frock, eating chocolates, and throwing tantrums upon refusal. Well, it is really a big occasion for me. I will be delighted to join in the celebration and bless the newly-wed couple. And yes, as requested the whole family is coming too. Yours Vipin

Declining the Invitation (4 marks)

 21, Professors’ Colony, Coimbatore10th January, 20XX Dear Nirbhay and Bhabhiji, I am pleasantly surprised to receive your invitation to Aditi’s wedding. Has she grown so big? I still remember her as the little girl with two ponytails in a pink frock,j eating chocolates, and throwing tantrums upon refusal. Well, it is really a big occasion for me and I would have loved to join you on the auspicious occasion, but my father is in the hospital. He had surgery last week and: needs constant care.I really feel bad not to be able to personally join the occasion and bless the newlywed couple. Please accept my best wishes. I am writing to Aditi separately. Yours Vipin

## Report Writing Class 12 Format, Examples, Topics, Samples, Types

In Online Education A report is a factual description of an issue or a problem. A report is written for a clear purpose and for a particular audience. Various forms of reports are: newspaper reports, inquiry reports, progress or action taken report, a police report, a report of a meeting, etc., each having a distinct character and format.

This grammar section explains English Grammar in a clear and simple way. There are example sentences to show how the language is used. NCERT Solutions for Class 12 English will help you to write better answers in your Class 12 exams. Because the Solutions are solved by subject matter experts. https://ncertmcq.com/report-writing-class-12/

## Online Education for Report Writing Class 12 Format, Examples, Topics, Samples, Types

Report Writing Class 12

Newspaper Report

A newspaper report must be comprehensive, but brief, factual yet interesting. Hence, factual reporting is the accurate and truthful coverage of an event.

• It is a brief review of a situation or a process that includes only the relevant points and information.
• It is usually written in the third person and indirect speech.
• Passive voice is used.
• The language is neutral and figurative.
• Ornamental language is avoided. The content should include answers to the questions when, where, why and how on the topic to be written about.

Characteristics of a Newspaper Report

• A news report should have a headline, date, place of origin of the news.
• It must contain the byline/name of the reporter.
• It must contain only relevant information.
• The newspaper report must have appropriate language for a report.
• It must contain a logical development of ideas, i.e. causes/reasons, effects or consequences.
• It must include the opinions of people and it should be comprehensive. It should contain views of all sides involved.
• Personal pronouns are to be avoided.

Format:
A newspaper report consists of the following elements:

Every news article has a headline to attract the attention of the reader. The headline must state the topic of the news in a strong, short phrase or statement.

• catchy
• brief-articles, prepositions, etc. must be left out wherever possible; abbreviations and shortened word-forms may be used wherever required

Byline
Since this is your news article, you need to let the reader know who wrote it. The line with your name on it is called the ‘By’ line because it tells by whom the article is written. Write the word ‘By’ followed by your first and last name.

A lead paragraph usually answers the questions: Who, What, Where, When, Why. The report usually begins with the name of the city where the report is being written and the date when it is being written.

• day, date, and time of the day when the incident happened
• name/names of the person(s)/event(s), etc. that the news is about
• a place where the incident happened
• details of the incident
• reasons why the incident happened

Report Writing Format Class 12

Paragraph 2
The second paragraph should tell the reader how the incident happened in detail. Narrate the incident in chronological order.

Paragraph 3
Eyewitness accounts add to the authenticity of the news. Also, they may interest the reader. Include some quotes from the eyewitness’ comments. Also, describe what they felt about the incident.

Paragraph 4

• Describe the future course of action is planned.
• Remember to use simple, clear but formal language.

Report Writing Examples For Class 12 Question 1.
You are Pranjal/Paakhi. You have received training in first aid, as a member of the Red Cross Society, arranged by your school. Prepare your report for the school magazine about your training in 100–125 words.

Report Writing Class 12 Pdf Question 2.
Cultural Society Sunshine Public School, Nellore organised an Adult Literacy Camp in its neighbourhood. Write a report in 150-200 words on the camp for your school newsletter. You are P.V. Sunitha, Secretary. Use the following clues: no. of volunteers – hours spent in teaching – location of the class – chairs, blackboards – no. of people attending the camp – benefit (10 marks) [CBSE (Delhi) 2017]

By P.V. Sunitha, Secretary, Cultural Society, Sunshine Public School,
Nellore

Nellore, May 01, 20XX: A commendable step was taken by the members of our Cultural Society of the school to organise a Literacy Camp to invite members of the local school- clubs, residents of various welfare organisations, and several NGOs to be a part of it. The camp started around 8 a.m. It was inaugurated by the District Literacy Chairperson, Dr. Nitin Rahtogi. Various NGOs, local clubs and schools had sent their representatives.

The total number of volunteers registered was 450. There were six experienced trainers who systematically explained with tools how the literacy programme is to be introduced in different pockets and continued in these phases to reach its target annually. Classes were held in six different spots within a short radius of the camp. The main tools were blackboards, chairs, basic texts on reading, writing and arithmetic. The camp lasted for five hours with a snack break for half an hour.

The volunteers expressed their gratitude for getting the opportunity of learning more than they expected, for the beneficial interactive sessions and for getting a scope to clear their doubts. The camp came to an end with the vote of thanks from the President of the host club.

Class 12 Report Writing Question 3.
Your school is situated near a road intersection. Last week, in the morning, a bus coming at a great speed overturned when it braked suddenly. Senior students of your school rushed out and did everything to save the passengers. You were part of the rescue efforts. Write a report in 150-200 words on the accident and your friends’ role, for your school newsletter. You are George/Mary. (10 marks) [CBSE (AI) 2017]

Bus Overturns on NH2 and NHPC Crossing
By Mary

Pari Chowk, March 10, 20XX

At about 8.30 a.m., yesterday, a private bus, carrying passengers, of Rome S-22, coming at break-neck speed, while trying to overtake a Honda City, braked suddenly as a boy ran to cross over the other side of NHPC or Pari Chowk. In seconds, the bus overturned. It could have been that the driver lost full control of the bus and the breaks failed or the size of the bus was incompatible with its speed and the sudden break. Passengers could be heard yelling and crying for help. As the school had not started, the High School students near the school gates immediately rushed to the spot, tried to get ladders and after breaking the glass panes, dragged passengers who were terrified and injured. Some were already with broken heads and limbs. Local help came in ten-fifteen minutes. The ambulance arrived and the police from the nearby police station on being called up by a senior student arrived to help in the rescue operation. There were 40 passengers on the whole. 3 women passed away, 5 children had serious injuries, some were moved to % the nearby hospital, while a few were given first-aid by the school medical team and sent away. The driver had serious head injury and a broken arm, while the helper died on spot.

It is high time that drivers become more responsible, frequent police patrol is arranged for at intersections and heavy penalty is imposed on crossing speed limits.

Report Writing For Class 12 Question 4.
Last month, Adventure Club, Sunshine Public School, Rampur organised a trek around Corbett National Park. During the eight-hour trek, the group lost its way but ultimately reached the starting point. On return, you, Asim/Asha, the group leader made a report on the trek to the Principal. Write his/her report in 150-200 words. (10 marks) [CBSE (F) 2017]

School Trip: Trek Around Corbett National Park
By Asim

The Adventure Club of our school organised an eight-hour trek around Corbett National Park. A group of 30 students and 3 teachers embarked on the trip. It was a fun-filled trip away from school and at home. Trekking through beautiful forests provided a glimpse of the beautiful scenic foothills and the Himalayan Mountain.

We reached Corbett in the morning at 6:00 a.m. in our school bus. After reaching there, we had our breakfast, which was not only healthy but also tasty. Then we began preparation for the trek. The teachers divided all the students in three groups for the trek. Each group was to be led by a teacher. Our guide gave us all the instructions of dos and don’ts during the trek. We were all very excited and enthusiastic.

Report Writing Topics For Class 12 Question 5.
Traffic police have launched a special drive against pollution-causing vehicles. This has led to traffic jams and crowds at important intersections. Write a report in 150-200 words to be published in the ‘Chennai Times’. You are Prince/Priya, 12, M.G. Road, Adayar, Chennai. (10 marks) [CBSE Delhi 2013]

Drive against Pollution-causing Vehicles
-Priya
Chennai Times

Traffic jams are a common sight in Chennai. But these days, they are on a rise. All because of the special drive-by traffic police against pollution-causing vehicles. Important intersections have been chosen and the concerned people can be seen in groups stationed at these points. Each and every vehicle is being stopped and their ‘No Pollution certificates’ are being checked. ? 1000/- is being charged as fine for the lapse. This drive is a positive step in achieving a pollution-free environment but has created a lot of inconvenience for the public and the daily commuters, as it has led to traffic jams. People are stranded on the roads for hours, getting late for their place of work. Though the new drive is highly appreciated by the people, they also feel that it is important that the public should not suffer. The authorities must find an alternative way for such a check that would cause less inconvenience to the general public.

Report Writing Class 12 Examples Question 6.
You are Karan/Kirti of L.M. Memorial Public School, Dwarka. Your school has adopted a village as a social responsibility. Students are being taken to teach the children of the village on a regular basis. Write a report, for your school magazine, on the various other programmes organised there in 150-200 words. (10 marks) [CBSE Sample Paper 2019]

Village Adoption – A Social Responsibility
By Karan

Recently, the students of L.M. Memorial Public School were taken to a village in the Periphery of Delhi. This village named as ‘Khyala’ near Najafgarh was adopted by our school for a month as a social responsibility. The main motive for this adoption was to spread awareness among the people about cleanliness, adult education, girl- child education, and removing the social evil of poverty and illiteracy. The students from Classes IX and XII participated in it.

The village students were given elementary knowledge. They were taught the alphabet, addition, subtraction, etc. Not only this, they cleaned the surroundings of the village and showed the people the need to maintain cleanliness through a street play. Old people were also attended with great care. The students provided them with some necessary day-to-day things. It was innovative and informative on the part of the villagers. The students learned how to connect with the roots of our country. Overall, it was a memorable experience for all to serve the people of this village.

Report Writing Questions For Class 12 Question 7.
An NGO, ‘Health for All’ organised a health check-up camp in a slum at Amritsar. You are Ruchika/Raunak, and you visited the camp. Write a report in 150-200 words covering arrangements such as registration, check-up, tests carried out, etc. (10 marks) [CBSE 2019 (1/2/1)]

Health Check-up Camp
By Ruchika

Amritsar, March 2, 20XX
A medical health care camp was set up in Amritsar by the NGO-Health. In the camp, proper medical treatment of the people of Amritsar and nearby areas was done and remedial measures were provided, all free of cost, including the basic medicines required for early recovery.

Students of Guru Nanak University, Amritsar noted down the details of the people of slum area who had come for the health check-up. People were encouraged to do simple activities on a regular basis to get rid of excessive body pain. A Blood Pressure (BP) check was performed on every patient. After that, they were sent to their respective doctors where they were appropriate given the right directions regarding their health.

A large majority of people were suffering from chronic back pain, swelling, watery eyes and high/low BP. This is a prime example of how the slums can be served appropriately if we are interested. We need not be high-profile citizens to bring about a change in society. It is the willingness and enthusiasm which comes out from within that encourages you to work for the betterment of others.

Report Writing Topics Question 8.
As part of an Entrepreneurship project the commerce students of your school recently launched a product called oatlicious. They not only set up a company to produce the product but also designed its advertising and marketing strategy. Write a report in about 150-200 words for your school magazine giving details of the enterprise and its launch. You are Akshay/Akshita of Graham Public School, Indore (10 marks)

Oatlicious – The product of Entrepreneurship project By Akshita
July 25, 20XX: The commerce students of our school recently launched a new breakfast product, Oatlicious. This was a part of their entrepreneurship project. The students went ahead to not only set up a company to produce the product but also designed its advertising and marketing strategy. Just like its name, the product tastes and looks delicious.

The product box has a picture of a huge bowl of delicious looking oats. The group also revealed that they have already started selling the product in small 10 rupees pack at the canteen. On the first day of the launch, the students gave free oat packets to the first ten students. Baveen, one of the team members revealed how much struggle they had to face initially to come up with an innovative idea for the project. According to him, it was just a project earlier but now it has become their dream. Baveen and his team found it hard to get sponsors earlier. He revealed how they did part-time jobs and asked their parents to sponsor the project. Now that they are successful, Vibha, one of the teammates revealed that they are getting offers from many companies. They have, however, not decided anything and are just happy and thankful for the response they got.

Report Writing Class 12 Format Question 9.
You are Sandhya/Sohan an active member of the Animal Lovers’ Club which works for the welfare of animals by preventing cruelty to them. Recently, you visited Mahatma Gandhi Animal Care Home. You were pleasantly surprised to see the good treatment given to the animals. Write a report in 150-200 words on your visit. You may use the following points: (10 marks) [CBSE (Compartment) 2018]

 injured dogs and cats-abandoned pets-very old animals-all very well cared for-well-equipped medical room-veterinary surgeon-green surroundings.

Visit Mahatma Gandhi Animal Care Home
By Sandhya, Member of Animal Lovers’ Club

Recently, I visited Mahatma Gandhi Animal Care Home with my team. The existence of animals adds charm to the natural surroundings. They too are part of natural habitat. People leave them if they become old or have a disease. These abandoned pets are given shelter at Animal Care Home. My team was really surprised to see the care of these animals when I saw how well they were being treated. There was a well-equipped medical room.

A veterinary surgeon was also present. Animals were allowed to live in the natural surrounding there having their separate living places, huts, and kennels, etc. Injured dogs and cats were also given a congenial environment. This was a positive step on the part of Animal Care Home. All the abandoned animals are searched and then brought to this home by the officials where they are medically and emotionally cared for. Overall, the visit to this Animal Home proved fruitful as it gave inspiration to the youth (members) to spread awareness to love animals rather than treating them with cruelty.

## Online Education for Class 12 Hindi Important Questions and Answers Chapter Wise

Online Education for Class 12 Hindi Important Questions: Here we are providing CBSE Important Extra Questions for Class 12 Hindi Core Chapter Wise Pdf download of Aroh Bhag 2 आरोह भाग 2 and Vitan Bhag 2 वितान भाग 2. Students can get Class 12 Hindi NCERT Solutions, Class 12 Hindi Important Extra Questions and Answers designed by subject expert teachers.

## Online Education CBSE Important Extra Questions for Class 12 Hindi Core Chapter Wise आरोह, वितान भाग 2

### Hindi Important Questions CBSE Class 12 Vitan Bhag 2

We hope the given NCERT Important Questions for Class 12 Hindi Core Chapter Wise Pdf download of Themes in Indian Hindi Part 1, 2, 3 in Hindi and English Medium will help you. If you have any queries regarding Hindi Important Questions and Answers CBSE Class 12, drop a comment below and we will get back to you at the earliest.

### FAQ’s on Class 12 Hindi Important Questions

Question 1.
Is it possible to score maximum marks by preparing the Class 12 Hindi Important Questions?

Yes, definitely, you can score maximum marks in the class 12 Hindi board exam by studying the unit-wise important questions. Also, you should go with the NCERT Hindi Textbook solutions for 100% marks.

Question 2.
How should I learn class 12 Hindi concepts easily?

By preparing the study notes and revising the major concepts included in the class 12 Hindi syllabus can help you learn the concepts so easily. In another aspect, by studying the important questions of class 12 Hindi you can learn the subject thoroughly and quickly.

Question 3.
Does CBSE repeat the Class 12 Hindi Important Questions in board exams?

Yes, most of the time CBSE repeats the previously asked questions in the upcoming board exams. So, you can blindly prepare all-important questions of class 12 Hindi and score better marks in the exams.

Question 4.
Where do I find the list of Hindi important questions for CBSE 12th board exams?

You can find the class 12 Hindi important questions list from our website ie., Learninsta.com which is a reliable and trusted site in providing all educational study resources.

## Note Making Class 12 Format, Examples

In Online Education Today, extensive reading is required in each and every field. Be it school, research or work, we are often bombarded with a variety of information. It often becomes difficult to recall all the important ideas we may have read.

This grammar section explains English Grammar in a clear and simple way. There are example sentences to show how the language is used. NCERT Solutions for Class 12 English will help you to write better answers in your Class 12 exams. Because the Solutions are solved by subject matter experts. https://ncertmcq.com/ncert-solutions-for-class-12-english/

## Online Education for Note Making Class 12 Format, Examples

Note Making Class 12

Note-making is a means to capture the key ideas of a given passage in an easily readable, logically-structured format. The main purpose of ‘key to abbreviations’ is to facilitate understanding for the other readers too. Thus, note-making can be a wonderful tool to take notes in class, share notes with each other and even revise for an exam.

♦ Tips to prepare for note-making and summary

• Prepare notes using phrases only and never use complete sentences.
• The topic of each paragraph is the main point/the central theme, and the ideas affiliated to it are the sub-points – one or more depending on the concepts in the paragraph.
• Sub-points should be limited to five.
• Each sub-point may or may not have supplementary ideas which become sub-subpoints. Do not give examples to support the main ideas.
• Proper indentation is essential.
• Provide an appropriate title for the notes and the summary.
• Include a minimum of 4 to 6 distinctly different, recognisable short forms (only necessary) of the longer words (abbreviations) in the notes. You may also use symbols and figures for abbreviation.
• Underline all short forms. Provide the key for the short forms at the end of the notes titled ‘Key to Abbreviations’.
• Cover all the important points in the passage while preparing the notes.
• Identify and club similar ideas scattered in different paragraphs/areas of the passage before subtitling paragraph wise to make notes short and precise.
• Using all the important points in the notes, prepare a cohesive and coherent summary in about 80 words.
• In the summary, use third person indirect speech and the past tense, wherever possible.
• Write the summary in complete sentences in a paragraph. Remember to be short and brief. Give an appropriate title to the summary.

Note Making Examples Class 12 Pdf

♦ Mechanics of Note-Making:

(a) Use of Abbreviations:

• Capitalized words: UNO, CBSE, NCERT, etc.
• Arithmetic symbols: (><, \, kg, %, etc.)
• Commonly used: (in newspapers, magazines, etc.) (sc., govt., Eng., Sans.)
• Invented: First and last few letters of the words with a dot at the end (edul, poln., popn. mfg.).

Note Making Examples Class 12

(b) Proper Indentation Notes:

Note Making Class 12 1. Sub-Heading

• (Point)
• (Point)
• (Point).
• (i) (Sub-point)
• (ii) (Sub-point)

Note Making Examples Class 12 2. Sub-Heading

Note Making Questions With Solutions Class 12

(b)

♦ Solved Passages:

Note Making Format Class 12

Note Making Examples Class 12 Pdf

Read the following passage carefully. (8 marks)

1. The small village of Somnathpur contains an extraordinary temple, built around 1268 A.D. by the Hoyasalas of Karnataka – one of the most prolific temple-builders. Belur and Halebid are among their better-known works. While these suffered during the invasions of the 14th century, the Somnathpur temple stands more or less intact in near-original condition.

2. This small temple captivates the beauty and vitality of its detailed sculpture, covering almost every inch of the walls, pillars and even ceilings. It has three shikharas and stands on a star-shaped, raised platform with 24 edges. The outer walls have a profusion of detailed carvings: the entire surface run over by carved plaques of stone. There were vertical panels covered by exquisite figures of Gods and Goddesses with many incarnations being depicted.

3. There were nymphs too, some carrying an ear of maize a symbol of plenty and prosperity. The elaborate ornamentation, the very characteristic of Hoyasala sculptures, was a remarkable feature. On closer look and it is worth it – the series of friezes on the outer walls revealed intricately carved caparisoned (covered decorative cloth) elephants, charging horsemen, stylised flowers, warriors, musicians, crocodiles, and swans. The temple was actually commissioned by Soma Dandanayaka or Somnath (he named the village after himself), the minister of the Hoysala king, Narasimha, the third. The temple was built to house three versions of Krishna.

4. The inner centre of the temple was the kalyana mandapa. Leading from here were three corridors each ending in a shrine, one for each kind of Krishna – Venugopala, Janardana and Prasanna Keshava, though only two remain in their original form. In the darkness of the sanctum sanctorum, I tried to discern the different images. The temple’s sculptural perfection is amazing and it includes the doors of the temple and the three elegantly carved towers.

(a) On the basis of your reading of the passage, make notes on it using headings and
sub-headings. Use recognisable abbreviations, wherever necessary. Give the passage a suitable title. (4 marks)
(b) Write a summary of the notes prepared, in not more than 80 words. (4 marks)

(a) Notes:

1. Heading – The village temple

1.1 Built in the Village of Somnathpur
1.2 1268 AD – by Hoyasalas
1.3 Most prolific bldrs
1.4 Stands intact even now

2. Temple: the beauty and vitality

2.1 Detailed sculpture – covering walls, pillars, ceilings
2.1.1 series of friezes on outer walls
2.1.2 intricately carved elephants
2.1.3 charging horsemen
2.1.4 stylised flowers
2.1.5 warriors, musicians, crocodile and swans
2.2 Three shikharas – stands shaped, raised platform – 24 edges
2.3 The outer walls – detailed carvings
2.4 The entire surface – carved plaques of stone
2.5 Vertical panels covered by exq. fig.

3. Representation of Hinduism

3.1 Incarnations
3.2 Many deities

4. Temple in the History

4.1 Comsnd. Soma Dandanayaka or Somnath
4.2 The inner centre of the temple – kalyana mandapa
4.3 Three corridors ending in a shrine

Note Making Examples For Class 12

(b) Summary: Temple of Somnathpur

The small village of Somnathpur contains an extraordinary temple, built around 1268 A.D. The temple stands more or less in tact in near original condition even now. The temple of Somnathpur is extraordinary due to the sculptures on the walls, pillars, and even the ceiling which is covered by exquisite figures of Gods and Goddesses. It is a representation of Hinduism with its many incarnations and deities. The temple commissioned by Somnath has a ‘kalyana mandapa’ with three corridors ending in a shrine.

Note Making Class 12 Examples

Note Making Questions With Solutions Class 12

II. Read the following passage carefully. (8 marks)

1. It’s 10 p.m. and the research paper is due the next morning. Sam types frantically. Two weeks ago, it seemed that there was plenty of time to get the paper done. Last week, the final of a soccer match on TV made it hard to study. Now, it’s crunch time. Looking at the clock, Sam wonders, “Why do I keep doing this to myself? Why haven’t I learned not to put things off until the last minute?”

2. The word procrastination comes from the Latin term ‘Procrastinatus’. It means to put forward until tomorrow. Standard dictionary definitions all include the idea of postponement or delay. Steel, a psychologist who has reviewed hundreds of studies on the subject, states that to procrastinate is “to voluntarily delay an intended course of action despite expecting to be worse-off for the delay”.

3. Another expert, Dr Joseph R. Ferrari (2005) distinguishes between people who tend to put things off and “chronic” or “real” procrastinators for whom this is their life and who might even need therapy. Ferrari categorises procrastinators into three types: (a) stimulation types that get a thrill from beating a deadline, (b) avoiders put off doing things that might make others think badly of them, and (c) decisional procrastinators postpone making a decision until they have enough information to avoid making a wrong choice.

4. Chronic procrastinators tend to have a low self-esteem and focus on the past more than the future. The Discounted Expectancy Theory illustrates with a student like Sam who puts off writing a paper. When the deadline is far off, the rewards for socialising now are greater than those for finishing a task not due until later. As the deadline looms, the rewards or consequences for finishing the paper become more important.

5. Tice and Baumeister (1997) found that procrastinators on the average got lower grades and had higher levels of stress and illness. Chu and Choi (2005) however, say that not all procrastinators are lazy and undisciplined. “Passive procrastinators” are more stressed, and less efficient. “Active procrastinators prefer to work under pressure” and “if something unexpectedly comes up, they will knowingly switch gears and engage in new tasks they perceive as more urgent.”

(a) On the basis of your reading of the passage, make notes on it, using headings and sub-headings. Use recognizable abbreviations, wherever necessary. Give the passage a suitable title. (4 marks)
(b) Write a summary of the notes prepared, in not more than 80 words. (4 marks)

(a) Notes:

1. Introtn of proctn

1.1 Origin – Latin
1.2 Meaning – Put fwd till tomorrow – Idea of postponement or delay
1.3 Steel (psychologist) – voluntary delay – despite expecting to be worse-off

2. Categortn

2.1 Dr Joseph R. Ferrari
2.1.1 Simtn types – thrill from beating a deadline
2.1.2 Avoiders – avoid things that make others think badly of them
2.1.3 Decisional – postpone making a decsn (until enough information)
2.1.4 Real procs – way of life (might need therapy)
2.1.5 Chronic procs
2.1.5.1 Low self-esteem
2.1.5.2 Focus on past
2.2 Tice and Baumeister
2.2.2 Higher levels of stress and illness

2.3 Chu and Choi

2.3.1 Passive procs – stressed, less efficient
2.3.2 Active procs – prefer to work under pressure, knowingly engage in new tasks (more urgent)

Note Making Class 12 English Solved Examples

♦ Key to Abbreviations:

1. Introtn – Introduction
2. Fwd – Forward
3. Categortn – Categorisation
4. Simtn – Simulation
5. Decsn – Decision
6. Procs – Procrastinators
7. Proctn – Procrastination

Note Making For Class 12

(b) Summary: Procrastination

Latin-origin procrastination is the idea of postponement. A psychologist, Steel, says it is a voluntary delay. Dr Joseph R. Ferrari categorises procrastinators into five types: ‘Simulation types feel thrilled’, ‘Avoiders’ fear criticism, ‘Decisions’ wait for information, ‘Reals’ find it natural and might need therapy while ‘Chronic’ ones have low self-esteem and focus on past. Tice and Baumeister say procrastinators get low grades and have high stress and illness. Chu and Choi clarify that passive procrastinators are stressed and less efficient while active procrastinators prioritise.

Note Making Examples Class 12 State Board

Note Making Passages For Class 12 With Answers

III. Read the following passage carefully. (8 marks)

1. People tend to amass possessions, sometimes without being aware of doing so. Indeed they can have a delightful surprise when they find something useful which they did not know they owned. Those who never have to change house become indiscriminate collectors of what can only be described as clutter. They leave unwanted objects in drawers, cupboards and attics for years, in the belief that they may one day need just those very things. As they grow old, people also accumulate belongings for two other reasons, lack of physical and mental energy, both of which are essential in turning out and throwing away, and sentiment. Things owned for a long time are full of associations with the past, perhaps with relatives who are dead, and so they gradually acquire a value beyond their true worth.

2. Some things are collected deliberately in the home in an attempt to avoid waste. Among these I would list string and brown paper, kept by thrifty people when a parcel has been opened, to save buying these two requisites. Collecting small items can easily become a mania. I know someone who always cuts out from newspaper sketches of model clothes that she would like to buy, if she had the money. As she is not rich, the chances that she will ever be able to afford such purchases are remote; but she is never sufficiently strong-minded to be able to stop the practice. It is a harmless habit, but it litters up her desk to such an extent that every time she opens it, loose bits of paper fall out in every direction.

3. Collecting as a serious hobby is quite different and has many advantages. It provides relaxation for leisure hours, as just looking at one’s treasures is always a joy. One does not have to go outside for amusement, since the collection is housed at home. Whatever it consists of, stamps, records, first edition of books, china glass, antique furniture, pictures, model cars, stuffed birds, toy animals, there is always something to do in connection with it, from finding the right place for the latest addition to verifying facts in reference books. This hobby educates one not only in the chosen subject but also in general matters which have some bearing on it.

There are also other benefits. One wants to meet like-minded collectors, to get advice, to compare notes, to exchange articles, to show off the latest findings. So one’s circle of friends grows. Soon the hobby leads to travel, perhaps to a meeting in another town, possibly a trip abroad in search of a rare specimen, for collectors are not confined to any one country. Over the years, one may well become an authority on one’s hobby and will very probably be asked to give informal talks to little gatherings and then if successful, to large audiences. In this way, self-confidence grows, first from mastering a subject, then from being able to talk about it. Collecting, by occupying spare time so contented, with no time for boredom.

(a) On the basis of your reading of the passage, make notes on it, using headings and sub-headings. Use recognizable abbreviations, wherever necessary. Give the passage a suitable title. (4 marks)
(b) Write a summary of the notes prepared, in not more than 80 words. (4 marks)

(a) Notes:

1. Amassing possessions

1.1 indiscr. collectors
1.2 causes cluster
1.3 unwanted object not disposed
1.4 assoc, with past
1.5 mntl & physical stngth

2. Deliberate collections

2.1 avoid wastage
2.2 collection becomes mania
2.3 harmless habit

3. Collection – hobby

3.1 provides relaxt’n
3.2 edn. & knowledge
3.3 a surge in friend circle
3.4 self-confidence & contentment

♦ Key to Abbreviations:

1. indiscr. – indiscriminate
2. assoc – association
3. mntl – mental
4. stngth – strength
5. relaxt’n – relaxation
6. edn. – education
7. & – and

(b) Summary: Collection of Things

Amassing possessions is a mania with many people. We can find indiscriminate collectors who collect unwanted objects. Old people collect things due to lack of strength and it shows their long association. People collect things deliberately to avoid wastage. Though it is a harmless habit, yet collection may be done by weak-minded men also. Collecting can be used as a hobby. It provides relaxation and has educative value. It helps in increasing our circle of friends. It creates self-confidence and contentment.

Note Making 12th Class English

Note Making Format Class 12

IV. Read the following passage carefully. (8 marks)

1. It’s a headache having a headache. Almost all of us have suffered from a headache at some time or the other. For some, a headache is a constant companion and life can be a painful hell of wasted time.

2. The most important step to cope with headaches is to identify the type of headache one is suffering from. Intension headache (two-handed headache), feeling of a tight band around the head exists along with pain in the neck and shoulders. It usually follows activities such as long stretches of driving, typing or sitting on the desk. It is usually short-timed, but can also last for days or weeks.

3. A headache is usually caused due to spinal misalignment of the head, due to poor posture. Sleeping on the stomach with the head turned to one side and bending over the position for a long time make it worse.

4. In migraine headache (one-handed headache), the pain is usually on one side of the head and may be accompanied by nausea, vomiting, irritability and bright spots or Hashes of light. This headache is made worse by activity, especially bending. The throbbing pain in the head gets worse by noise and light. Certain triggers for migraines maybe chocolate, smoking, too little sleep or too much of sleep, hunger, etc. The pain may last from 8 to 24 hours and there may be a hangover for two-three days.

5. Migraine is often caused by an “aura”- changes in sight and sensation. There is usually a family history of migraine.

6. In a headache, the pain originates not from the brain but from irritated nerves of muscles, blood vessels and bones. These send pain signals to the brain, which
then judges the degree of distress and relays it to appropriate sites. The pain may sometimes be referred to sites other than the problem areas. This is known as referred pain and occurs due to sensation overload. Thus, though most headaches start at the base of the skull, the referred pain is felt typically behind the eyes.

7. Factors causing headaches are not fully understood but it is known that a shift in the level of body hormones and chemicals, certain food and drinks, and environmental stress can trigger them.

8. If headache troubles you often, visit the doctor who will take a full health history relating to diet, lifestyle, stresses, the type of headache, triggering factors and relief measures. You may be asked to keep a “headache diary” which tells you to list the time the headache started, wThen it ended, emotional, environmental, and food and drink factors which may have contributed to it. The type and severity of pain and the medications used which provided most relief, are also to be listed.

9. This helps the doctor in determining the exact cause and type of headache and the type of drugs to use. Apart from this, a physical examination is done to rule out any serious underlying cause. The blood pressure is recorded, vision tested and muscle coordination of the eyes is checked to rule out these as causes. A blood test may be done to rule out anemia, diabetes and thyroid disease. If any of the above is abnormal or otherwise, a CT Scan or MRI may be done to see tissues and structures around the brain. These will rule out causes such as tumours, hemorrhage, and infection of the brain. This examination gives a clear picture of the problem to the doctor.

10. Immediate relief can be obtained by certain medications and a few simple self-care techniques. Using ice against the pain ‘site’, covering eyes with dark glasses, drinking plenty of fluids and lying down in a dark and quiet room, provide relief in a migraine attack. Painkillers like aspirin, ibuprofen and acetaminophen can be taken and provide relief in different proportions. These should be used with caution and under medical supervision as all of them can cause many side effects if used for long periods and in large quantities. An anti-emetic like perinorm can help nausea associated with a migraine.

(a) On the basis of reading the passage, make notes on it, using headings and sub-headings. Also use recognizable abbreviations, wherever necessary. Give the passage a suitable title to it. (4 marks)
(b) Write a summary of the notes prepared, in not more than 80 words. (4 marks)

(a) Notes:

1. Types of H-ache

1.1 tension headache-pain in neck & shoulders

2. Symptoms and causes

2.1 driving
2.2 long hours of sitting, typg or desk-work
2.3 genetic or food-oriented
2.4 hormonal imbalance
2.5 uneasy posture while sleep’g
2.6 stress and overburden on head

3. Cure & Tremt.

3.1 self-care of ice-pac
3.2 intake of maxm. fluid
3.3 allopathy painkillers

♦ Key to Abbreviations:

2. typ’g – typing
3. sleep’g – sleeping
4. tremt. – treatment
5. maxm. – maximum

Headache is a very common disease in modern age. It is caused due to bodily posture, long hours of sitting and working on the desk, driving continuously and hormonal imbalance in our body. Often stress and uneasy posture of sleeping may cause severe headache. It must be cured with doctor’s advice, by taking painkillers and self-medication, ice-packs on the head, maximum intake of fluid, etc. After a certain age, one should get a regular physical check-up done to identify the kind of headache.

Class 12 Note Making

Note Making Examples For Class 12

V. Read the following passage carefully. (8 marks)

1. The topic of thought is one area of psychology and many observers have considered this aspect in connection with robots and computers; some of the old worries about artificial intelligence were closely linked to the question of whether computers could think. The first massive electronic computers capable of rapid computation and little or no creative activity were soon dubbed ‘electronic brains’.

A reaction to this terminology quickly followed. To put them in their place, computers were called ‘high-speed idiots’, an effort to protect human vanity. But not everyone realised the implications of high-speed idiot tag. It has not been pointed out often enough that even the human idiot is one of the most intelligent life forms on earth. If the early computers were even that intelligent, it was a remarkable state of affairs.

2. One consequence of speculation about the possibility of computer thought was that we were forced to examine with new care the idea of thought in general. It soon becomes clear that we were not sure what we meant by such terms as ‘thought’ and ‘thinking’. We tend to assume that human beings think, some more than others, though we often call people thoughtless or thinking. Dreams cause a problem, partly because they usually happen outside our control. They are obviously some type of mental experiences, but are they a type of thinking? And the question of non-human life forms adds further problems.

Many of us would maintain that some of higher animals-dogs, cats, apes and so on-are capable of at least basic thought, but what about fish and insects? It is certainly true that the higher mammals show complex brain activity, when tested with the appropriate equipment. And what is true of thought is also true of many other mental processes. One of the immense benefits of artificial intelligence research is that we are being forced to scrutinise with new vigour and the working of human mind.

3. It is already clear that machines have superior mental abilities to many life forms. No fern or oak trees can play chess as well as even the simplest digital computer nor can frogs weld car bodies as well as robots. The three-fingered mechanical manipulator is cleverer in some ways than the three-toed sloth. It seems that, viewed in terms of intellect, the computer should be set well above plants and most animals. Only the higher animals can, it seems, compete with computers with regard to intellect-and even with the diminishing success (Examples of this are in the games of backgammon and chess). Some of the world’s best players are now computers.

(a) On the basis of your reading of the passage, make notes on it, using headings and sub-headings. Also use recognisable abbreviations, wherever necessary. Give the passage a suitable title to it. (4 marks)
(b) Write a summary of the notes prepared, in not more than 80 words. (4 marks)

(a) Notes:

1. Psychology

1.1 topic of thought
1.2 conctn to robots & compts
1.3 artificial int.
1.4 can they think?

2. First elec, compts.

2.1 called elecn. brains
2.2 human vanity
2.3 (to put in place) called h.s. idiots

3. The meaning of thought w.r.t.

3.1 lower animals
3.2 higher animals
3.3 machines

4. Machines sup. in int. to many life forms

4.1 fern, or oak trees can’t play chess; compts. can
4.2 frogs can’t weld; robots can
4.3 only higher forms of life can compete for that too, to a limited degree

♦ Key to Abbreviations

1. conctn – connection
2. & – and
3. int. – intelligence
4. compts. – computers
5. elecn. – electronic
6. h.s. – high-speed
7. w.r.t. – with respect to
8. sup. – superior

(b) Summary: Computers as Thinkers

This topic of thought is an area of psychology. It is concerned with the old worries about artificial intelligence, and the thinking ability of computers. There has been a lot of controversy about whether computers and robots could be called intelligent things or as things having brains. They can work far better than the lower forms of life that are supposed to have some intelligence. Only the higher forms of life can compete with computers and that too, to a limited degree.

♦ Unsolved Passages:

Note Making Passage For Class 12 With Answers

I. Read the following passage carefully. (8 marks)

1. Make In India is a new national program designed to transform India into a global manufacturing hub. It contains a range of proposals designed to urge companies – local and foreign – to invest in India and make the country a manufacturing powerhouse.

2. The focus of Make In India programme is on creating jobs and skill enhancement in 25 sectors. These include automobiles, aviation, chemicals, IT & BPM, pharmaceuticals, construction, defence manufacturing, electrical machinery, food processing, textiles and garments, ports, leather, media and entertainment, wellness, mining, tourism and hospitality, railways, automobile components, renewable energy, mining, biotechnology, space, thermal power, roads and highways, and electronics systems.

3. The Make In India logo is derived from India’s national emblem. The wheel denotes the peaceful progress and dynamism – a sign from India’s enlightened past, pointing the way to a vibrant future. The prowling lion stands for strength, courage, determination and wisdom – values that are every bit as Indian today as they have ever been.

4. Global investors have been quite severe in their criticism about complex rules and bureaucratic red tape that delay investment decisions. India ranks 134 out of 189 countries in the World Bank’s ease of doing business index in 2014. As part of the Make In India initiative, foreign investment caps in construction will be eased to enable greater participation in the NDA government’s 100 smart cities project and affordable housing. The initiative will also target top companies across sectors in identified countries.

Major highlights of the Make In India plans are as follows:

• Invest India cell: An investor facilitation cell set up by the government will act as the first reference point for guiding foreign investors on all aspects of regulatory and policy issues and to assist them in obtaining regulatory clearances.
• Consolidated services and faster security clearances-. All central government services are being integrated with an e-Biz single window online portal, while states have been advised to introduce self-certification.
• Dedicated portal for business queries: A dedicated cell has been created to answer queries from business entities through a newly created web portal (http:// www.makeinindia.com). The back-end support team of the cell would answer specific queries within 72 hours.
• Interactions with the users/visitors: A pro-active approach will be deployed to track visitors for their geographical location, interest and real time user behaviour. Subsequent visits will be customised for the visitor based on the information collected.
• Easing policies and laws: A vast number of defence items have been de-licensed and the validity of industrial license has been extended to three years.

5. With a view to provide flexibility in working hours and increased intake of apprentices for job training, the government plans to introduce a single labour law for small industries by December. An advisory has been sent to all departments/ state governments to simplify and rationalise the regulatory environment (which includes online filing of all returns in a unified form).

6. Narendra Modi stated the reason and motive to launch Make In India very clearly, It is important for the purchasing power of a common man to increase, as this would further boost demand, and hence spur development, in addition to benefiting investors. The faster people are pulled out of poverty and brought into the middle class, the more opportunity will be there for global business. Therefore, investors from abroad need to create jobs. Cost-effective manufacturing and a handsome buyer – one who has purchasing power – are both required. More employment means more purchasing power.

7. Modi had felt a mood of gloom among India’s business community in the last few years, due to lack of clarity on policy issues. He said, “Trust is essential for investors to feel secure. Let us begin with trust; if there is an issue, Government can intervene. Trust, too, can be a transformative force. Development and growth-oriented employment is the government’s responsibility.” To the expression “Look East,” Modi added “Link West”, emphasising on the necessity of a global vision. Referring to his vision of wastewater management and solid waste management in 500 towns across India through public-private partnership, he said that Mission Swachh Bharat and “waste to wealth” could lead to good revenue models for business as well.

(a) On the basis of your reading of the passage, make notes on it, using headings and sub-headings. Use recognisable abbreviations, wherever necessary. Give the passage a suitable title. (4 marks)
(b) Write a summary of the notes prepared, in not more than 80 words. (4 marks)

II. Read the following passage carefully. (8 marks)

1. A scholar is refused admission to a good school primarily because of his weak interactive skills. It is indeed pathetic that though English is spoken fluently and used every day, yet none is satisfied with their abilities. A learner feels that he cannot express himself the way he wants to. And he fails miserably to connect with his own hidden power.

2. The education system, in its endeavours to make Curriculum relevant and life-oriented has, as a matter of fact, fallen short of its standards. It is oblivious of the fact that the most applied and practical subject-English: is devoid of practical afflatus. English is at cross roads. Both aspects of education: the cultural that empowers a learner to grow and the production aspect that makes him do things, is relegated to the background curriculum, thus stands lopsided. It fails to provide full range of services and cannot tap teachers’ expertise. No proper moves and strategies have been formulated to make it unique. English courses are mushrooming and alluring advertisements clip are often spotted.

3. With the onset of the new millennium, demands of the Educational System to sensitise itself to changing societal needs has also increased manifold. The new race of human beings has to be served New Curriculum that caters to the Unity of Thought, Action & Deed, and help evolve an integrated human personality. A Comprehensive Curriculum alone can enhance their understanding of four basic skills.

4. Acquiring the skill of English is no Catwalk. And English is no Science where results are verified; but it means Construction; ingenuity at work. The Architecture that it builds can never be complete, if it is divorced from learning by doing.

5. There are a number of Projects like Phonetics, News reading, Indian literature, poetry-composition, interview skills, biography-launch, etc. which can help a pupil to experiment till he finds a medium that helps free flow of thoughts, to think critically and creatively, and emerge as literary competent. As long as there is proper feeding, English will live in their hearts and reign in their minds. Sooner or later, they will be blessed with a marathon for actionable learning that shall make a multidimensional impact on them. “Within the enclosure (pupils) lies the potential for a new beginning And within this exciting beginning lies an astonishing future for him.”

6. English cannot be conferred so easily and so soon. We need to take control of English. There is a grave need to designate English, without the slightest hesitation, a practical status if at all, we want a remarkable future. The lack of efforts in learning English and the general feeling of not being interested in learning, the English language that are plaguing the system should be urgently addressed. Should not we all battle against this abuse?

(a) On the basis of your reading of the passage, make notes on it, using headings and sub-headings. Use recognisable abbreviations, wherever necessary. Give the passage a suitable title. (4 marks)
(b) Write a summary of the notes prepared, in not more than 80 words. (4 marks)

III. Read the following passage carefully. (8 marks)

1. Chocolate – there’s nothing quite like it, is there? Chocolate is simply delicious. What is chocolate? Where does it come from? Christopher Columbus was probably the first to take cocoa beans from the New World to Europe in around 1502. But the history of chocolate goes back at least 4,000 years! The Aztecs, who lived in America, thought that their bitter cocoa drink was a divine gift from heaven. In fact, scientist Carolus Linnaeus named the plant Theobroma, which means “food of the Gods”.

The Spanish explorer Hernando Cortez went to America in 1519. He visited the Mexican emperor, Montezuma. He saw that Montezuma drank cocoa mixed with vanilla and spices. Cortez took some cocoa home as a gift to the Spanish King Charles. In Spain, people began to drink Cortez’s chocolate in a drink with chili peppers. However, the natural taste of cocoa was too bitter for most people. To sweeten the drink, Europeans added sugar to the cocoa drink. As a sweet drink, it became more popular. By the 17th century, rich people in Europe were drinking it.

2. Later, people started using chocolate in pastries, like pies and cakes. In 1828, Dutch chocolate makers started using a new process for removing the fat from cocoa beans, and getting to the center of the cocoa bean. The Dutch chocolate maker Conrad J. van Houten made a machine that pressed the fat from the bean. The resulting powder mixed better with water than cocoa did. Now, some call Van Houten’s chocolate “Dutch chocolate.”

3. It was easy to mix Dutch chocolate powder with sugar. So other chocolate-makers started trying new recipes that used powdered chocolate. People started mixing sweetened chocolate with cocoa butter to make solid chocolate bars. In 1849, an English chocolate -maker made the first chocolate bar. In the 19th century, the Swiss started making milk chocolate by mixing powdered milk with sweetened chocolate. Milk chocolate has not changed much since this process was invented.

4. Today, two countries – Brazil and Ivory Coast – account for almost half the world’s chocolate. The United States imports most of the chocolates in the world, but the Swiss eats the most chocolate per person. The most chocolate eaten today is sweet milk chocolate, but people also eat white chocolate and dark chocolate.

5. Cocoa and dark chocolate are believed to help prevent heart attacks, or help keep them from happening. They are supposed to be good for the circulatory system. On the other hand, the high fat content of chocolate can cause weight gain, which is not good for people’s health. Other health claims for chocolate have not been proven, but some research shows that chocolate could be good for the brain.

6. Chocolate is a popular holiday gift. A popular Valentine’s Day gift is a box of chocolate candies with a card and flowers. Chocolate is sometimes given for Christmas and birthdays. Chocolate eggs are sometimes given at Easter.

7. Chocolate is toxic to some animals. An ingredient in chocolate is poisonous to dogs, cats, parrots, small rodents, and some livestock. Their bodies cannot process some of the chemicals found in chocolate. Therefore, they should never be fed chocolate.

(a) On the basis of your reading of the passage, make notes on it, using headings and
sub-headings. Use recognisable abbreviations, wherever necessary. Give the passage a suitable title. (4 marks)
(b) Write a summary of the notes prepared, in not more than 80 words. (4 marks)

IV. Read the following passage carefully. (8 marks)

1. The pioneers of the teaching of science imagined that its introduction into education would remove the conventionality, artificiality, and backward-lookingness which were characteristic; of classical studies, but they were gravely disappointed. So, too, in their time had the humanists thought that the study of the classical authors in the original would banish at once the dull pedantry and superstition of mediaeval scholasticism. The professional schoolmaster was a match for both of them, and has almost managed to make the understanding of chemical reactions as dull and as dogmatic an affair as the reading of Virgil’s Aeneid.

2. The chief claim for the use of science in education is that it teaches a child something about the actual universe in which he is living, in making him acquainted with the results of scientific discovery, and at the same time, teaches him how to think logically and inductively by studying scientific method. A certain limited success has been reached in the first of these aims, but practically none at all in the second. Those privileged members of the community, who have been through a secondary or public school education may be expected to know something about the elementary physics and chemistry of a hundred years ago, but they probably know hardly more than any bright boy can pick up from an interest in wireless or scientific hobbies out of school hours.

3. As to the learning of scientific method, the whole thing is palpably a farce. Actually, for the convenience of teachers and the requirements of the examination system, it is necessary that the pupils not only do not learn scientific method but learn precisely the reverse, that is, to believe exactly what they are told and to reproduce it when asked, whether it seems nonsense to them or not. The way in which educated people respond to such quackeries as spiritualism or astrology, not to say more dangerous ones such as racial theories or currency myths, shows that fifty years of education in the method of science in Britain or Germany has produced no visible effect whatever.

The only way of learning the method of science is the long and bitter way of personal experience, and, until the educational or social systems are altered to make this possible, the best we can expect is the production of a minority of people, who are able to acquire some of the techniques of science and a still smaller minority, who are able to use and develop them.

(a) On the basis of your reading of the passage, make notes on it, using headings and
sub-headings. Use recognisable abbreviations, wherever necessary. Give the passage a suitable title. (4 marks)
(b) Write a summary of the notes prepared, in not more than 80 words. (4 marks)

V. Read the following passage carefully. (8 marks)

1. Keeping cities clean is essential for keeping their residents healthy. Our health depends not just on personal hygiene and nutrition, but critically also on how clean we keep our cities and their surroundings. The spread of dengue and chikungunya are intimately linked to the deteriorating state of public health conditions in our cities.

2. The good news is that waste management to keep cities clean is now getting attention through the Swachh Bharat Mission. However, much of the attention begins and stops with the brooms and the dustbins, extending at most to the collection and transportation of the mixed waste to some distant or not so distant place, preferably out of sight.

3. The challenge of processing and treating the different streams of solid waste, and safe disposal of the residuals in scientific landfills, has received much less attention in municipal solid waste management than is expected from a health point of view.

4. One of the problems is that instead of focusing on waste management for health, we have got sidetracked into “waste for energy”. If only we were to begin by not mixing the biodegradable component of solid waste (close to 60 per cent of the total) in our cities with the dry waste, and instead use this stream of waste for composting and producing a gas called methane.

5. City compost from biodegradable waste provides an alternative to farmyard manure (like cow-dung). It provides an opportunity to simultaneously clean up our cities and help improve agricultural productivity and quality of the soil. Organic manure or compost plays a very important role as a supplement to chemical fertilisers in enriching the nutrient-deficient soils. City compost can be the new player in the field.

6. Benefits of compost on the farm are well-known. The water holding capacity of the soil which uses compost helps with drought-proofing, and the requirement of less water per crop is a welcome feature for a water-stressed future. By making the soil porous, use of compost also makes roots stronger and resistant to pests and decay. Farmers using compost, therefore, need less quantity of pesticides. There is also an evidence to suggest that horticulture crops grown with compost have better flavour, size, colour and shelf-life.

7. City compost has the additional advantage of being weed-free unlike farmyard manure which brings with it the seeds of undigested grasses and requires a substantial additional labour cost for weeding as the crops grow. City compost is also rich in organic carbon, and our soils are short in this. Farmers clearly recognise the value of city compost. If city waste was composted before making it available to the farmers for applying to the soil, cities would be cleaned up and the fields around them would be much more productive.

8. Quite apart from cleaning up the cities of biodegradable waste, this would be a major and sustainable contribution to improving the health of our soil without further damage by excessive chemical inputs. What a marvellous change from waste to health!
The good news is that some states are regularly laying plastic roads. Plastic roads will not only withstand future monsoon damage but will also solve a city’s problem of disposing of non-recyclable plastic. It is clear that if the mountains of waste from our cities were to be recycled into road construction material, it would tackle the problem of managing waste while freeing up scarce land. [CBSE Paper 2018]

(a) On the basis of your understanding of the passage make notes on it, using headings
and sub-headings. Use recognizable abbreviations, wherever necessary. Give the passage a suitable title. (4 marks)
(b) Write a summary of the notes prepared, in not more than 80 words. (4 marks)

VI. Read the following passage carefully. (8 marks)

1. To live in harmony with oneself and the environment is the wish of every human. However, in modern times greater physical and emotional demands are constantly placed upon many areas of life. More and more people suffer from physical and mental tension such as stress, anxiety, insomnia, and there is an imbalance in physical activity and proper exercise. That is why, methods and techniques for the attainment and improvement of health, as well as physical, mental and spiritual harmony, are of great importance, and Yoga meets this requirement.

2. The word ‘Yoga’ originates from Sankrit and means ‘to join, to unite’. Yoga exercises have a holistic effect and bring body, mind, consciousness and soul into a balance. In this way, Yoga assists us in coping with everyday demands, problems and worries. Yoga helps to develop a greater understanding of our self, the purpose of life and our relationship with God.

3. On the spiritual path, Yoga leads us to supreme knowledge and eternal bliss in the union of the individual Self with the universal Self. Yoga is that supreme, osmic principle. It is the light of life, the universal creative consciousness that is always awake and never sleeps; that always was, always is, and always will be.

4. Many thousands of years ago in India, Rishis (wise men and saints) explored nature and the cosmos in their meditations. They discovered the laws of the material and spiritual realms and gained an insight into the connections within the universe. They investigated the cosmic laws, the laws of nature and the elements, life on earth, and the powers and energies at work in the universe both in the external world and on a spiritual level. The unity of matter and energy, the origin of the universe and the effects of the elementary powers have been described and explained in the Vedas. Much of this knowledge has been rediscovered and confirmed by modern science.

5. From these experiences and insights a far-reaching and comprehensive system known as Yoga originated and gave us valuable, practical instructions for the body, breathing, concentration, relaxation and meditation. The system ‘Yoga in Daily Life’ is taught worldwide in Yoga Centres, Adult Education Centres, Health Institutions, Fitness and Sports Clubs, Rehabilitation Centres and Health Resorts. It is suitable for all age groups – the name itself indicates that Yoga can be and should be used ‘in Daily Life’.

6. The exercise levels have been worked out in consultation with doctors and physiotherapists and can therefore – with the observation of the stated rules and precautions- be practised independently at home by anyone. ‘Yoga in Daily Life’ is a holistic system, which means it takes into consideration not only the physical but also the mental and spiritual aspects. Positive thinking, perseverance, discipline, orientation towards the Supreme, prayer as well as kindness and understanding, form the way of‘self-knowledge’ and ‘self-realisation’. [CBSE 2019]

(a) On the basis of your understanding of the passage, make notes on it, using headlines and sub-headings. Also use recognisable abbreviations, wherever necessary. Give the passage a suitable title to it. (4 marks)
(b) Write a summary of the notes prepared, in not more than 80 words. (4 marks)

## Online Education for Notice Writing Class 12 Format, Examples, Topics, Exercises

Notice Writing Class 12

A notice is a formal means of communication. The purpose of a notice is to announce or display information to a particular group of people. Notices are generally meant to be put up on specific display boards, whether in schools or in public places. Notices issued by the government appear in newspapers.

This grammar section explains Online Education English grammar in a clear and simple way. There are example sentences to show how the language is used. NCERT Solutions for Class 12 English will help you to write better answers in your Class 12 exams. Because the Solutions are solved by subject matter experts. https://ncertmcq.com/notice-writing-class-12/

♦ A notice should be written in the following format:

• The name of the organisation issuing the notice
• The title ‘NOTICE’
• A heading to introduce the subject of the notice
• The date
• The body of the notice
• The writer’s signature, name (in block letters), and designation

♦ Sample Notice:

Notice Writing For Class 12 Question 1.
As Secretary of the Eco Club of Avabai Petit School, Mumbai, draft notice in not more than 50 words, informing the club members about the screening of Leonardo Dicaprio’s film ‘11th Hour’ in the school’s auditorium.

Sarvodaya Education Society, a charitable organisation is coming to your school to distribute books among needy students. As Head Boy/Head Girl, Sunrise Public School, Surat, write a notice in about 50 words asking such students to drop the lists of books they need in the box kept outside the Principal’s office. You are Navtej/ Navita. (4 marks) [CBSE Delhi 2015]

Notice Writing Format Class 12 Question 2.
Your club is going to organise an inter-class singing competition. Write a notice in about 50 words inviting names of the students who want to participate in it. Give all the necessary details. You are Navtej/Navita, Secretary, Music Club, Akash Public School, Agra. (4 marks) [CBSE (AI) 2015]

 Akash Public School, Agra Notice January 15, 20XX Inter-Class Singing Competition The Music Club Announces “Swar Tarangam”, an Inter-Class Singing Competition for classes VI, VII & VIII on February 27, 20XX. The theme for the Competition is ‘Devotional or patriotic song’. Interested students should register with j the Music department. The auditions will be held from 27th January – 5th February j in the School Auditorium. There will be 6 entries from each class, i.e., VI, VII & VIII. The list of finalists will be put up on the notice board on February 7, 20XX. For further details, contact the undersigned. Navtej Secretary Music Club

Your school is organising a SPICMACAY programme on the occasion of the World ‘Dance Day wherein the renowned Bharatnatyam dancer, Geeta Chandran would be giving a lecture-demonstration. As the President, Cultural Society of your school, draft notice in about 50 words, informing the students about the same. You are Rakhsita/Rohit of MVN Public School. (4 marks) [CBSE Sample Paper 2016]

 Mvn Public School Notice April 20, 20xx World Dance Day Celebration On the occasion of World Dance Day, our school is organising a SPICMACAY presentation by the renowned Bharatnatyam dancer, Geeta Chandran. Students from Class IX-XII are eligible to attend the lecture-demonstration. Interested students may j register with their class teacher. For any further details, please contact the undersigned. Venue: School Auditorium Date: April 29th Time: 10 a.m. Rakshita, Class XII President, Cultural Society

Notice Format Class 12 Question 4.
Water supply will be suspended for eight hours (10 a.m. to 6 p.m.) on the 6th of March for cleaning the water tank. Write a notice in about 50 words advising the residents to store water for a day. You are Karan Kumar/Karuna Bajaj, Secretary, Janata Group Housing Society, Palam Vihar, Kurnool. (4 marks) [CBSE Delhi 2016]

 Janata Group Housing Society Notice February 27, 20XX Water Tank Cleaning This is to inform all the residents that the water supply will be suspended for eight j hours (10 a.m. to 6 p.m.) on the 6th of March for cleaning of the water tank. All the residents are advised to store water for a day. The inconvenience caused is deeply regretted. Karan Kumar-Secretary Palam Vihar, Kurnool

Class 12 Notice Writing Question 5.
Yesterday, during lunch break you misplaced your notes on chemistry lectures. You want to get them back. Write a notice in about 50 words for the school noticeboard. You are Karuna/Karan, a student of class XII A. (4 marks) [CBSE (AT) 2016]

 Avn Public School! Notice February 27, 20xx Chemistry Notes Misplaced I have lost my chemistry lecture notes on 14 January, 20XX during lunch break ! ! between 12-12.30 p.m. They were in a red Classmate folder It was left in the school j ! ground, on a seat in the east pavilion. Whosoever has found it, kindly return it to me. Karuna Class XII A

Notice Writing Class 12 Question 6.
After the rain, cases of dengue, chikungunya, etc. are on the rise in your city. As a Principal, Sunshine Public School, Manu Vihar, you have decided to allow your students to wear full sleeve shirts and trousers in the school for a period of one month. Write the notice in about 50 words. (4 marks) [CBSE (Delhi) 2017]

 Sunshine Public School, Manu Vihar Notice August 10, 20xx Dress Code as Preventive Measure This is to hereby inform all students of Sunshine Public School, Manu Vihar that j from August 11, 20XX to September 11, 20XX you have to wear full sleeve shirts and j trousers in the school as protection against dengue, malaria, and chikungunya that has become endemic here. i Vijaya Vyas (Principal)

Notice Questions For Class 12 Question 7.
You are Health Secretary, Students Council Citizens Public School, Ram Bagh, Varanasi. The Council has decided to start from the 2nd of October a week-long cleanliness drive around the school. Draft a notice in about 50 words asking class XI students to enroll for the drive. (4 marks) [CBS.E (Delhi) 2017]

 Students Council Citizens Public School, Ram Bagh Notice September 23, 20xx Cleanliness Drive This is to hereby inform the Middle and High School students that the Students Council of our school has decided to undertake a drive for cleanliness in and around our school. The details for the drive are as follows: Venue: School Ground & 2 km around school Date: October 2, Gandhi Jayanti Time: 8 a.m. – 11 a.m. Special Guest: Chairman, MCD You will be provided with cleaning gadgets. Varun Kaushik; Health Secretary

Notice Writing Format Cbse Class 12 Question 8.
R.J. Public School is located in Central Government employee’s residential colony. Cultural Society of the school has decided to organise a fancy dress show on the 25th of January in which each participant will wear the dress particular to his/her region. The aim is to show the cultural diversity of India. As Secretary, write a notice in about 50 words inviting the names of those who want to participate. (4 marks) [(Delhi) 2017]

 R. J. Public School, Pune Notice December 28, 20xx Fancy Dress Exhibition This is to inform and invite participation for a Fancy Dress Show, highlighting the : Cultural Diversity of India. The eager participants are to note the following and enroll: with the dress and cultural ideas in detail. Venue: Community Centre Date: January 25, 20XX Time: 10 a.m.- 1p.m. Theme: India’s Cultural Diversity Chief Guest: Lt. Col. S. S. Sandhu Entry: No Fee Vinod Khaitan: (Cultural Secretary)

Notice Writing Examples For Class 12 Question 9.
An NGO has approached your school to offer book grants to needy students. As Head Girl of Sunshine Public School, Aram Bagh, write a notice in about 50 words asking students who are in need to put their requests into the box kept outside the Principal’s office. (4 marks) [CBSE (Delhi) 2017]

 Sunshine Public School, Aram Bagh Notice April 15, 20xx Book Grants For the Needy This is to inform the needy students of our school that ‘Books for AH’, an NGO, wishes to provide books for needy students. Those in need of books, kindly submit your requirements subject and class wise. Write the complete name of the book and the publisher, neatly on a sheet of paper Write your own name, class, and section too, and j put it in the dropbox outside the Principal’s office. Richa Sodi (Head Girl)

Class 12 English Notice Writing Question 10.
The Principal, Sunshine Public School, Dindigul has invited the Inspector of Police (Traffic) to deliver a lecture on ‘Road Safety’ in her school. Draft a notice in about 50 words informing the students to assemble in the school auditorium. (4 marks) [CBSE (AI) 2017]

 Sunshine Public School, Dindigul Notice March 10, 20xx Road Safety Awareness This is to inform the students of Middle and High School that a lecture will be delivered on Road Safety to create awareness amongst them. The following are the details: Venue: Senior Assembly Area Date: March 18,20XX Time: 9 a.m.-10 a.m. Resource Person Inspector of Police (Traffic) For any further information, contact the undersigned. Diljit (Principal)

Notice Writing Questions For Class 12 Question 11.
Twenty-five years ago, a government school was opened in Adampur, your village.
As a part of its silver jubilee celebrations, the school has decided to honour the meritorious old students who are now holding important positions in life. As a Head Boy/Girl, draft notice in about 50 words inviting students of classes IX and XII to attend the function in the school hall. (4 marks) [CBSE (F) 2017]
Notice Making Class 12 Question 12.
You are Simar/Smriti of Lotus International School, Jodhpur. Your school has decided to contribute in controlling traffic near your school and require the names of volunteers from IX to XII. Write a notice in about 50 words to be displayed on the noticeboard. (4 marks) [CBSE Sample Paper 2019]

 Lotus International School, Jodhpur Notice October 7, 20xx Contribution in Controlling Traffic This is for the information of the students from classes IX to XII. The school has decided to contribute in controlling traffic near the school. Therefore, all the students who want to volunteer for this social cause may give their names to the undersigned i latest by tomorrow. For further details, contact the undersigned. Simar; (Head Boy)

Notice Writing Class 12 Format Question 13.
The Arts Club of your school is going to organise a Drawing and Painting Competition. Write a notice in not more than 50 words, to be displayed on the school noticeboard, inviting students to participate in it. Give all the necessary details. You are Rishabh/ Ridhima, Secretary, Arts Club, Sunrise Public School, Gurugram, Haryana. (4 marks) [CBSE (1/1/1) 2019]

 Sunrise Public School, Gurugram, Haryana Notice May 5, 20xx Attention! Art Lovers! Arts Club will host a Drawing and Painting Competition on 19th June 20XX at the school amphitheater at 10:00 a.m. All talented students must participate in the competition. For further details, contact; the undersigned. Rishabh/Ridhima Secretary, Arts Club

## Sociology Class 12 Chapter Wise Important Questions

Online Education for Sociology Class 12 Chapter Wise Important Questions: Here we are providing CBSE Important Extra Questions for Class 12 Sociology Chapter Wise Pdf download of Indian Society, Change and Development in India in Hindi and English Medium. Students can get Class 12 Sociology NCERT Solutions, Sociology Class 12 Important Extra Questions and Answers designed by subject expert teachers.

## Online Education for CBSE Sociology Class 12 Important Extra Questions and Answers Chapter Wise Pdf

Important Questions of Sociology Class 12 Part A Indian Society

Sociology Class 12 Important Questions Part B Social Change and Development in India

We hope the given CBSE Important Questions of Sociology Class 12 Chapter Wise Pdf download of Sociology and Indian Economic Development in Hindi and English Medium will help you. If you have any queries regarding NCERT Class 12 Sociology Extra Important Questions and Answers, drop a comment below and we will get back to you at the earliest

### FAQ’s on Important Questions for Class 12 Sociology

Question 1.
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It is easy to learn sociology concepts by relating them to real life. Things happening around us are the best examples and help you to remember sociology topics. Also, underline the important topics while reading and check them before you go for the exam.

Question 2.
What is the best preparation method for the CBSE class 12 exam?

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Question 3.
What is the best strategy to prepare for Chapter Wise Sociology Class 12 Important Questions and Answers?

Firstly, separate the chapters and important concepts. Begin your preparation from important topics. Prepare all important questions from important topics of Sociology Class 12, then prepare those answers and read for easy learning.

Question 4.
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In Online Education An Advertisement is a kind of public notice asking for or offering services or buying and selling property, goods, etc., or providing information about missing persons, pets, etc.

This grammar section explains English Grammar in a clear and simple way. There are example sentences to show how the language is used. NCERT Solutions for Class 12 English will help you to write better answers in your Class 12 exams. Because the Solutions are solved by subject matter experts. https://ncertmcq.com/advertisement-writing-class-12/

Classified Advertisements: Classified advertisements are placed by individuals wishing to advertise the availability or need for goods and services. These ads, as the name implies, are grouped according to the product or service type. Classified advertisers are billed by the word or the line. As a result, classified ads are generally brief and descriptive.

Every newspaper has a separate section for classified advertisements. These are divided into categories or classes according to their subject matter and the function they perform. Advertisements can be for vacant situations, sale and purchase of property or goods, to-let, educational institutions, missing persons/pets, lost and found, and travels and tours.

Classified advertisements are brief and to the point as the advertisers are charged per word or per column line or even per column centimetre. As a result, advertisers keep their classifieds brief by ignoring grammar, using certain words and phrases peculiar to classifieds and by using abbreviations. The reason for this is to convey more while paying less.

At times, classified advertisements do not mention the name or contact address or phone number of the advertiser but give a P.O. Box Number. Newspapers offer this facility to the advertiser to maintain secrecy.

Since the advertisement must catch the eye of the reader, it must be attractive. Every word must express an idea. However, brevity should not be at the cost of clarity.

• They are categorized into columns according to different classes.
• They are brief and occupy less space.
• They are economical.
• They are written in short phrases and words.
• The language is simple and concise, factual and formal.
• There are no blocks or designs.

Important points

1. The first one or two words of an advertisement may be written in capital letters.
2. Marks will be deducted for exceeding the word limit.

1. Situations Vacant

• preferably begin with ‘Wanted’ or ‘Required’
• write the name of the organization
• indicate the post and number of vacancies
• state the essential qualifications and experience
• give preferences, if any, such as age and gender of the candidate
• other preferences/details are optional and can be included
• state pay scale and perks (including opportunities for growth)
• state mode of applying/interview procedure

Draft a display advertisement to promote the sale of new hair oil, The New Age Eiair Revitalizer Cream, for curing baldness and promoting hair growth, giving all the relevant details. (4 marks)

Draft a display advertisement to be published in a local daily, for the promotional sale of the NEW ENGLAND shirts launched by your company in not more than 50 words.(4 marks)

You are Manager, Infocom Network C-3 Main Shopping Center, Vasant Vihar, New Delhi. Draft an advertisement offering office furniture for sale. Give details. (4 marks) [CBSE Sample Paper 2016]

 For Sale Fourteen chairs, ten desktop tables, ten file cabinets,special printer desk in perfect condition for sale. The price is negotiable. Contact person: Ramakant Misha, Phone: 9587290278 manager, Infocam Network C-3 Main Shopping Center, Vasant Vihar, New Delhi

Principal, Sunrise Global School, Agra requires a receptionist for her school. Draft a
suitable advertisement in about 50 words to be published in the classified columns of a national newspaper giving all the necessary details of qualifications and experience required in the receptionist. (4 marks) [CBSE Delhi 2016]

 Receptionist Wanted Applications are invited by Sunrise Global School, Agra. Applicant should! be around 28 years of age, graduate, minimum of five years of working experience I conversant with the best practices of schools. Apply with full particulars and the emoluments expected within a week to Principal, Sunrise Global School, Agra-65. Phone: 040-234561.

You are Karan Kumar/Karuna Bajaj, a leading lawyer practising in Surat. You want to buy an independent house at City Light Road to be used as office-cum residence. Draft an advertisement in about 50 words for the classified columns of a local newspaper. You can be contacted at 45645678. (4 marks) [CBSE (AI) 2016]

 Wanted Independent House Wanted an independent house as office-cum-residence, newly constructed, unfurnished/semi-furnished, east-facing, Vaastu compliant, preferably ground floor, minimum five rooms, two attached washrooms, in City Light Road. Should have regular water supply, covered parking space. Contact Person: Karuna Bajaj, Phone: 45645678.

You are Karan/Karuna of M 114, Mall Road, Delhi. You are a civil engineer and have recently returned from the UAE. You are looking for a suitable job in India. Draft an advertisement for the same in about 50 words. Give details of your qualifications, experience, nature of the job, and expected remuneration. (4 marks) [CBSE (AI) 2016]

 Situation Wanted Wanted a job with a reputed construction company for a UAE returned civil \ engineer with more than 5 years of experience, B.Tiech (Civil Engineering) from Delhi! : College of Engineering. Worked for two years with Mahindra Group, New Delhi, and 3 years with ACL Limited, Dubai. For further details, contact: Karan M-114, Mall Road, Delhi 90432165

Your school, Akash Public School, Agra needs a canteen manager. On behalf of the Principal, write an advertisement in about 50 words to be published in the classified columns of a local daily. Mention the educational and professional qualifications, other qualities required in the manager, who to apply to, and the last date for the receipt of applications. (4 marks) [CBSE (AI) 2015]

 Required a Canteen Manager Applications are invited for the post of Canteen Manager. Applicant should be around 35 years of age, minimum, Class X pass, ten years of; i experience in running a school canteen. Apply within a week with full particulars and I ! emoluments expected, to the Principal, Akash Public School, 12, Besant Road, Agra. The Principal Akash Public School

You need to buy a flat. Draft a suitable advertisement in about 50 words to be published in the classified columns of a local newspaper giving all the necessary details of your requirement. You are Karan/Karuna, Ml 14, Mall Road, Delhi. (4 marks) [CBSE Delhi 2016]

 Wanted Flat Wanted 2 BHK newly constructed, unfurnished/semi-furnished east-facing vastu compliant flat, preferably ground floor in North Delhi. Should have 24/7 water & electricity supply, covered parking space. Contact Person: Karan, Phone: 654322100.

You are Vikram/Sonia, a Hons graduate in history with specialisation in Medieval India. You are well acquainted with places of historical interest in Delhi, Agra, and Jaipur. You are looking for the job of a tourist guide. Write an advertisement in not more than 50 words for the ‘Situation Wanted’ column of a local newspaper. Your contact no. is 999751234. (4 marks) [CBSE (Delhi) 2017]

 Situation Wanted A well-qualified, experienced Hons graduate in history, seeking a job as a tourist j guide; age – 28 years; hardworking, specialised in history of Medieval India, familiar: with places of historical interest in Delhi, Agra and Jaipur; good communication and interpersonal skills. Salary negotiable. CONTACT: Sonia 999751234

Question 10.
You are the Dean, Admissions, MNT Professional College, Chandigarh. Draft an

 Educational MNT Professional College, Chandigarh Offers B.Com, B. Tech, B.SC., B. Mus, B. Pharm & LLB. Admissions On Experience 8c Excellent Faculty CBSE, Icse, Isc & All-State Boards Candidates With Pass Certificates Apply Immediately Fee Concession & Exemption as Per Rules Contact: Secretary Mnt Pc, Sector-12, Chandigarh Phone: 1122538790

Question 11.
You are Vikram/Sonia, an electronic engineer who has recently returned from the US
and looking for a suitable job in the IT industry. Draft an advertisement in about 50 words for the Situation Wanted column of a national newspaper. Your contact number is 9193010203. (4 marks) [CBSE (AI) 2017]

 Situation Wanted A well-qualified, experienced and expert electronics engineer recently returned from the US seeks a suitable job in a reputed IT company. M. Tech from the IIT Mumbai, age 35 years, experience 10 years, working with Webcom, London. Expected salary 85k per month. Contact: Vikram 9193010203.

Question 12.
You are Arnit/Arnika. You want to sell your car as you are planning to but a new
one. Draft a suitable advertisement to be published in the vehicles column of a newspaper. (4 marks) [CBSE Sample Paper 2018]

 Car for Sale Available for sale, black Honda City, model 2014, lineage 12 kmpl, 12,000 km driven, new seat covers, stereo fitted, non-accidental, single hand driven, fully insured, i complete documentation, pollution control certificate, affordable prices.

Question 13.
You are Harish/Harshita of 12, Seva Nagar, Pune. You want to sell your flat as you are shifting to another city for work. Draft a suitable advertisement in not more than 50 words to be published in ‘The Pune Times’ under the classified columns. (4 marks) [CBSE Paper 2018]

 For Sale A 3 BHK, 1,500 sq. ft, on the ground floor, Savita Vihar, is available for outright sale. East facing, 3 balconies, water heater, a/c, 24*7 water and electricity. Parking for 2 cars, near schools, colleges, metro, taxi auto stand and Apollo hospital. Expected price 1.5 crores.

Question 14.
You are Principal of National Public School, Jaipur. You require a TGT (Maths) for your school. Draft a suitable advertisement in not more than 50 words for the ‘Situations Vacant’ column of ‘The National Times’ stating essential and desirable qualifications, experience, etc. of the candidates. You are Principal of National Public School, Jaipur. You require a TGT (Maths) for your school. Draft a suitable advertisement in not more than 50 words for the ‘Situation Vacant’ column of ‘The National Times’ stating essential and desirable qualifications, experience, etc. of the candidates. (4 marks) [CBSE Paper 2018]

 Situation Vacant Required a well-qualified, Mathematics TGT for National Public School, Jaipur. Aged between 30-40, fluent in English, master’s degree in mathematics, minimum 5 years; experience, hard-working, well mannered, salary negotiable. Walk-in-interview at Principal office, National Public School, Jaipur on 23rd June 20XX. Contact no: 9999- 8373- 99 Email address- nationalpublicschooll23@gmail.com

## Unseen Passage for Class 12 Descriptive With Answers 2020

This grammar section explains English Grammar in a clear and simple way. There are example sentences to show how the language is used. NCERT Solutions for Class 12 English will help you to write better answers in your Class 12 exams. Because the Solutions are solved by subject matter experts. https://ncertmcq.com/unseen-passage-for-class-12-descriptive/

## Unseen Passage for Class 12 Descriptive With Answers pdf 2020

♦ Solved Passages:

I. Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow. (12 marks)

1. Stress is not a novel phenomenon. In fact, the word stress was first used in the fifteenth century. Since the turn of the twentieth century, however, the social consciousness of life’s stress has risen dramatically. Stress and anxiety have become common terms.

2. Environment provides human beings with certain harsh incentives and demands, which as long as their intensity and frequency are within the limits of human tolerance, can stimulate their motivation and enhance their productivity. However, when these environmental demands become excessive it leads to stress.

3. Hans Selye, who first began piecing together the puzzle of human stress, holds that it is immaterial whether the agent or situation we face is pleasant or unpleasant; all that counts is the intensity of the demand for readjustment or adaptation. Stress is the body’s response to external changes that place demands upon us, both physically and mentally. Stress is neutral, in itself it has no connotation; it is neither positive nor negative. There really is no such thing as plain ‘stress’; stress is actually classified into one of two types of stress: eustress or distress.

4. Hans Selye, came up with this theory of distress versus eustress in 1975 when he published his theory. Eustress, the good stress, can sometimes be beneficial; sharpening our senses and providing the adrenaline rush needed to conquer deadlines and multi-tasking. Distress occurs when an individual cannot adapt to stress. It is the harmful stress that can, even in short bursts, depress your immune system, cause weight gain. Over a period of time it can lead to brain neurons dying from atrophy; it puts one at a greater risk for a range of medical conditions including blood pressure, diabetes and heart disease.

5. Eu, a Greek prefix for “healthy’, is used in the same sense in the word ‘euphoria’. Role models who push us to exceed our limits, physical training that removes our spare tires, and risks that expand our sphere of comfortable action are all examples of eustress – stress that is healthful and the stimulus for growth. Eustress can be defined as pleasant or positive stress. In fact, eustress or controlled stress may sometimes be encouraged as it gives us our competitive edge during performance-related activities. Any performance-related activity, a sports-related game or even a job interview has an optimal amount of stress that can prove to be beneficial. Positive stress lends focus and provides the ability to think quickly, clearly and effectively express your thoughts. We should invite and cultivate as much eustress in our lives as we can tolerate. Eustress makes us grow, it makes us stronger, and it makes us better people. Whether it’s physical or mental, eustress is resistance training for our lives! Eustress is lifting weights at. the gym to build your muscles. Eustress is riding a roller coaster or watching an enjoyable horror flick. Eustress is a challenging work project that you enjoy using your creative abilities to solve.

6. Often the main problem with distress is that you don’t know when it’s going to end. To turn distressed into eustress we can try thinking of the stresses as temporary. One of the best ways to convert distress into eustress is to not try to do a million things at one time, take a big goal and cut it into small pieces, that way you can work more productively and efficiently.

7. Another way to convert your negative experiences into positive experiences is by reframing your stress sensation, for example, if you are anxious about a certain situation reframe it as if it was excitement.

8. Next time you’re feeling stressed because you’re sitting in traffic, or you’re running late, or your exams are round the corner – notice the feelings and thoughts that arise within yourself. Be aware of your breath, your heart rate, your emotions, your thoughts…and when you feel your heart start to pound, when you notice you are breathing rapidly and more shallow, when you feel your emotions are in a fight or flight state – realize that you are NOT in a life or death situation, you are NOT running for your life from a lion! Simple awareness can dissolve the association we make between distress and ourselves.

9. Create processes to filter out the distress from your life, while creating environments that foster helpful eustress. By saying YES to eustress and NO to distress, we allow the positive stressors into our lives that provide healthy resistance and facilitate our growth, while keeping out the harmful garbage that does nothing but damage us!

1.1 Choose the correct option.

(a) Eu is a ………………………….. prefix.
i. Greek
ii. Latin
iii. French

(b) Hans Selye, came up with his theory of distress versus eustress in …………………………. .
i. 1970
ii. 1975
iii. 1980

(a) When was the word stress first used?
(b) Who was the first person to begin piecing together the puzzle of human stress?
(c) What are the two types of stress called?
(d) Name two harmful short term effects of stress.
(e) What are the harmful medical conditions that can develop from long – term exposure to stress?
(f) What is often the main problem with distress?

1.3 Pick out the words from the passage which mean the same as the following.
(a) inducements (para 2)
(b) sieve (para 9)

1. Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow.

1. Stress is not a novel phenomenon. In fact, the word stress was first used in the fifteenth century. Since the turn of the twentieth century, however, social consciousness of life’s stress has risen dramatically. Stress and anxiety have become common terms.

2. Environment provides human beings with certain harsh incentives and demands, which as long as their intensity and frequency are within the limits of human tolerance, can stimulate their motivation and enhance their productivity. However, when these environmental demands become excessive it leads to stress.

3. Hans Selye, who first began piecing together the puzzle of human stress, holds that it is immaterial whether the agent or situation we face is pleasant or unpleasant; all that counts is the intensity of the demand for readjustment or adaptation. Stress is the body’s response to external changes that place demands upon us, both physically and mentally. Stress is neutral, in itself it has no connotation; it is neither positive nor negative. There really is no such thing as plain ‘stress’; stress is actually classified into one of two types of stress: eustress or distress.

4. Hans Selye, came up with this theory of distress versus eustress in 1975 when he published his theory. Eustress, the good stress, can sometimes be beneficial; sharpening our senses and providing the adrenaline rush needed to conquer deadlines and multi-tasking. Distress occurs when an individual cannot adapt to stress. It is the harmful stress that can, even in short bursts, depress your immune system, cause weight gain. Over a period of time it can lead to brain neurons dying from atrophy; it puts one at a greater risk for a range of medical conditions including blood pressure, diabetes and heart disease.

5. Eu, a Greek prefix for “healthy’, is used in the same sense in the word ‘euphoria’. Role models who push us to exceed our limits, physical training that removes our spare tires, and risks that expand our sphere of comfortable action are all examples of eustress – stress that is healthful and the stimulus for growth. Eustress can be defined as pleasant or positive stress. In fact, eustress or controlled stress may sometimes be encouraged as it gives us our competitive edge during performance-related activities. Any performance-related activity, a sports-related game or even a job interview has an optimal amount of stress that can prove to be beneficial. Positive stress lends focus and provides the ability to think quickly, clearly and effectively express your thoughts. We should invite and cultivate as much eustress in our lives as we can tolerate. Eustress makes us grow, it makes us stronger, and it makes us better people. Whether it’s physical or mental, eustress is resistance training for our lives! Eustress is lifting weights at. the gym to build your muscles. Eustress is riding a roller coaster or watching an enjoyable horror flick. Eustress is a challenging work project that you enjoy using your creative abilities to solve.

6. Often the main problem with distress is that you don’t know when it’s going to end. To turn distressed into eustress we can try thinking of the stresses as temporary. One of the best ways to convert distress into eustress is to not try to do a million things at one time, take a big goal and cut it into small pieces, that way you can work more productively and efficiently.

7. Another way to convert your negative experiences into positive experiences is by reframing your stress sensation, for example, if you are anxious about a certain situation reframe it as if it was excitement.

8. Next time you’re feeling stressed because you’re sitting in traffic, or you’re running late, or your exams are round the corner – notice the feelings and thoughts that arise within yourself. Be aware of your breath, your heart rate, your emotions, your thoughts…and when you feel your heart start to pound, when you notice you are breathing rapidly and more shallow, when you feel your emotions are in a fight or flight state – realize that you are NOT in a life or death situation, you are NOT running for your life from a lion! Simple awareness can dissolve the association we make between distress and ourselves.

9. Create processes to filter out the distress from your life, while creating environments that foster helpful eustress. By saying YES to eustress and NO to distress, we allow the positive stressors into our lives that provide healthy resistance and facilitate our growth, while keeping out the harmful garbage that does nothing but damage us!

1.1 Choose the correct option.

(a) Eu is a ………………………….. prefix.
i. Greek
ii. Latin
iii. French

(b) Hans Selye, came up with his theory of distress versus eustress in …………………………. .
i. 1970
ii. 1975
iii. 1980

(a) When was the word stress first used?
(b) Who was the first person to begin piecing together the puzzle of human stress?
(c) What are the two types of stress called?
(d) Name two harmful short term effects of stress.
(e) What are the harmful medical conditions that can develop from long – term exposure to stress?
(f) What is often the main problem with distress?

1.3 Pick out the words from the passage which mean the same as the following.
(a) inducements (para 2)
(b) sieve (para 9)

II. Read the following passage carefully. (12 marks)

1. I recently had submitted an article ‘Reforming our Education System’ wherein the need for our educational system to shift its focus from insisting upon remembering to emphasising or understanding was stressed upon.

2. This article brought back the memory of an interesting conversation between my daughter and myself in the recent times, wherein I had learnt that Economics and Physics were a few of the most difficult subjects for her as she had to mug up the answers. Though I offered to help her out with the immediate problem on hand, 1 learnt subsequently that many a time it pays to mug up the answer properly, because the teachers find it easier to evaluate that way. It seems, the more deviation there is from the way the sentences are framed in the textbook, the more risk one runs of losing marks.

3. This reminded me of a training session I had attended at work, where we were required to carry out an exercise of joining the dots that were drawn in rows of three without lifting the pen and without crossing the trodden path more than once. Though the exercise seemed quite simple, almost 95 per cent of us failed to achieve the required result, no matter how hard we tried. The instructor then informed us cheerily that it happened all the time because the dots that appeared to fit into a box like formation do not allow us to think out of the box. That was when I realised that all of us carry these imaginary boxes in our minds. Thanks to our stereotyped upbringing that forces our thinking to conform to a set of pattern.

4. “What is the harm in conforming as long as it is towards setting up a good practice?”, someone might want to ask. Perhaps, no harm done to others but to the person being confined to “think by rote” may mean being deprived of rising to the heights he/she is capable of rising to, even without the person being aware of the same.

5. If we instil too much fear of failure in the children right from the young age, the urge to conform and play safe, starts stifling the creative urge which dares to explore, make a mistake and explore again. As we know, most of the great inventions were initially considered to be most outrageous and highly impractical. It is because the people inventing the same were not bothered about being ridiculed and brave enough to think of the unthinkable that these inventions came into being.

6. For many children, studies are the most boring aspect of their lives. Learning, instead of fun is being considered the most mundane and avoidable activity. Thanks to the propagators of an educational system which is more information- oriented than knowledge-oriented. Too much of syllabus, too many students per teacher, lack of enough hands-on exercises, teaching as a routine with the aim of completing the syllabus in time rather than with the goal of imparting knowledge, the curriculum more often than not designed keeping in view the most intelligent student rather than the average student are the important factors in this regard. Peer pressure, high expectations of the parents in an extremely competitive environment, the multitude of distractions in an era of technological revolution are adding further to the burden on the young minds.

7. For a change, can we have some English/Hindi poems ickle, tickle and pickle the young minds and send them on a wild goose chase for the pot of gold at the end of a rainbow? Can we have lessons in History that make the child feel proud of his heritage, instead of asking him to mug up the years of the events? Can physics and chemistry lessons be taught more in the laboratories than in the classrooms? Can a system be devised so as to make the educational excursions compulsory for schools, so that visits to historical/botanical places are ensured without fail? Can the educational institutes start off inter-school projects on the internet, the way the schools in abroad do, so as to encourage the child to explore on her own and sum up her/his findings in the form of a report?

8. Finally, can we make the wonder of the childhood lost and get carried forward into the adulthood, instead of forcing pre-mature adulthood on children? I, for one, have realised that it is worth doing so, hence, I have asked my child to go ahead by choosing to write the answers on her own, in her own language by giving vent to her most fanciful imagination! (Source: The Hindu)

A. On the basis of your understanding of the passage, answer the following questions by
choosing the most appropriate option. (1 × 5 = 5 marks)

Question (i)
What were the difficult subjects for the writer’s daughter?
(a) Biology and Chemistry
(b) Economics and Physics
(c) Political Science and English
(d) History and Maths
(b) Economics and Physics

Question (ii)
Why does it pay to mug up answers?
(a) Because teachers find it easy to evaluate
(b) Because students find it easy to write
(c) Because teachers find it easy to teach
(d) Because students find it easy to remember
(a) Because teachers find it easy to evaluate

Question (iii)
What stifles the creative urge in children?
(a) The urge to be always right
(b) The urge to do well in everything
(c) The urge to conform and play safe
(d) The urge to take risks
(c) The urge to conform and play safe

Question (iv)
How is learning considered now?
(a) An interesting activity
(b) A mundane and avoidable activity
(c) A fun-filled activity
(d) An interesting but avoidable activity
(b) A mundane and avoidable activity

Question (v)
What is adding further to the burden on the young minds?
(a) Knowledge-oriented educational system
(b) High expectations of the parents
(c) Lack of hands-on exercises
(b) High expectations of the parents

B. Answer the following questions briefly. (1 × 7 = 7 marks)

Question (i)
What does the article “Reforming our Education System” emphasise upon?
It emphasised the need for shifting education from remembering to understanding.

Question (ii)
What exercise was the writer given in her training session?
They had to join dots that were drawn in rows of three without lifting the pen and without going through the same path.

Question (iii)
What are the “imaginary boxes” referred in the passage?
These are the ways of thinking that we cannot change.

Question (iv)
What is the harm that may occur if a person is taught to always think by rote?
There is the likelihood that such a person may never rise in his ability to think.

Question (v)
List the factors that have made learning a very boring process.
Too much syllabus; too many students per teacher; no hands-on exercise; curriculum designed for the bright child only.

Question (vi)
Find a word from the passage (para-3) which means ‘to behave according to the usual standards of behaviour which is accepted by the society’.
conform

Question (vii)
Find a word from the passage (para-6) which means ‘very ordinary and therefore not interesting’.
mundane

III. Read the following passage carefully. (12 marks)

1. Many of us believe that ‘small’ means ‘insignificant’. We believe that small actions and choices do not have much impact on our lives. We think that it is only the big things, the big actions and the big decisions that really count. But when you look at the lives of all great people, you will see that they built their character through small decisions, small choices and small actions that they performed every day.

They transformed their lives through a step-by-step or day-by-day approach. They nurtured and nourished their good habits and chipped away at their bad habits, one step at a time. It was their small day-to-day decisions that added up to make tremendous difference in the long run. Indeed, in matters of personal growth and character-building, there is no such thing as an overnight success.

2. Growth always occurs through a sequential series of stages. There is an organic process to growth. When we look at children growing up, we can see this process at work: the child first learns to crawl, then to stand and walk, and finally to run. The same is true in the natural world. The soil must first be tilled, and then the seed must be sowed. Next, it must be nurtured with enough water and sunlight, and only then it will grow, bear fruit and finally ripen, and be ready to eat.

3. Gandhi understood this organic process and used this universal law of nature to his benefit. Gandhi grew in small ways, in his day-to-day affairs. He did not wake up one day and find himself to be the “Mahatma”. In fact, there was nothing much in his early life that showed signs of greatness. But from his mid-twenties, he deliberately and consistently attempted to change himself, reform himself and grow in some small way every day. Day-by-day, hour-by-hour, he risked failure, experimented and learnt from the mistakes. In small and large situations alike, he took up rather than avoid responsibility.

4. People have always marvelled at the effortless way in which Gandhi could accomplish the most difficult tasks. He displayed great deal of self-mastery and discipline which was amazing. These things did not come easily to him. Years of practice and disciplined training went into making his success possible. Very few saw his struggles, fears, doubts and anxieties, or his inner efforts to overcome them. They saw the victory but not the struggle.

5. This is a common factor in the lives of all great people: they exercised their freedoms and choices in small ways that made great impact on their lives and their environment. Each of their small decisions and actions, added up to have a profound impact in the long run. By understanding this principle, we can move forward, with confidence, in the direction of our dreams. Often, when our “ideal goal” looks too far from us, we become easily discouraged, disheartened and pessimistic. However, when we choose to grow in small ways, taking small steps one at a time, it becomes easy to achieve the goal. [CBSE Sample Paper 2015]

A. On the basis of your understanding of the passage, answer the following questions by choosing the most appropriate option. (1 × 5 = 5 marks)

Question (i)
What do many of us believe?
(a) Small choices and small actions are performed every day
(b) There is no such thing as an overnight success
(c) Small actions and choices do not have much impact on our lives
(d) ‘Small’ means ‘significant’
(c) Small actions and choices do not have much impact on our lives

Question (ii)
What does the writer mean by saying ‘chipped away at their bad habits’?
(d) Did not like bad habits

Question (iii)
Which of the following statement is true in the context of the third paragraph?
(a) Gandhi became great overnight.
(b) Gandhi showed signs of greatness in childhood itself.
(c) Every day, Gandhi made efforts to change himself in some small way.
(c) Every day, Gandhi made efforts to change himself in some small way.

Question (iv)
Why have people always marvelled Gandhi?
(a) For his effortless way to accomplish difficult tasks
(b) For his great deal of self-mastery and discipline
(c) For his fears, doubts and anxieties
(d) For his struggle
(a) For his effortless way to accomplish difficult tasks

Question (v)
What do great people do to transform their lives?
(a) They approach life on a day-by-day basis.
(b) They build character in small ways.
(c) They believe in performing everyday.
(d) All of these
(b) They build character in small ways.

B. Answer the following questions briefly. (1 × 7 = 7 marks)

Question (i)
What is “organic process of growth”?
They have an impact gradually. Slowly good habits are nurtured and bad habits
are given up.

Question (ii)
What, according to the writer, is the ‘universal law of nature’?
Growth of a child is an example of an organic process. The child first learns to crawl, then to stand and walk and finally to run.

Question (iii)
How did Gandhi accomplish the most difficult tasks effortlessly?
According to the author, the ‘universal law of nature’ is that growth is gradual.

Question (iv)
Which part of Gandhi’s life is not seen by most people?
Gandhiji accomplished the most difficult tasks effortlessly by practice, self-mastery, and discipline. He worked on small things and learnt from his mistakes.

Question (v)
How can we achieve our ‘ideal goals’?
Gandhi’s struggles, fears, doubts and anxieties, or his inner efforts to overcome them were not seen by most people.

Question (vi)
Find a word from the passage (para-3) which means ‘intentionally’ or ‘purposely’.
deliberately

Question (vii)
Find a word from the passage (para-5) which means ‘of deep significance’.
profound

IV. Read the following passage carefully. (12 marks)

1. One of the greatest sailing adventures of the past 25 years was the conquest of the Northwest Passage, powered by sail, human muscle, and determination. In 100 days, over three summers (1986-88), Jeff Maclnnis and Mike Beedell accomplished the first wind-powered crossing of the Northwest Passage.

2. In Jeff Maclnnis’s words…Our third season. We weave our way through the labyrinth of ice, and in the distance, we hear an unmistakable sound. A mighty bowhead whale is nearby, and its rhythmic breaths fill us with awe. Finally, we see it relaxed on the surface, its blowhole quivering like a volcanic cone, but it senses our presence and quickly sounds. We are very disappointed. We had only good intentions – to revel in its beautiful immensity and to feel its power. Mike thinks how foolish it would be for this mighty beast to put any faith in us. After all, we are .members of the species that had almost sent the bowhead into extinction with our greed for whale oil and bone. It is estimated that around 38,000 bowheads were killed off eastern Baffin Island in the 1800s; today, there are about 200 left.

3. The fascinating and sometimes the terrifying wildlife keeps us entertained during our explorations. Bearded harp and ring seals greet us daily. The profusion of birdlife is awesome; at times, we see and smell hundreds and thousands of thick¬billed murres clinging to their cliffside nests. Our charts show that we are on the edge of a huge shoal where the frigid ocean currents upswell and mix nutrients that provide a feast for the food chain. At times, these animals scare the living daylights out of us. They have a knack of sneaking up behind us and then shooting out of the water and belly, flopping for maximum noise and splash. A horrendous splash coming from behind has a heart-stopping effect in polar bear country.

4. We have many encounters with the “Lords of the Arctic”, but we are always cautious, observant, and ever so respectful that we are in their domain. In some regions, the land is totally devoid of life, while in others, the pulse of life takes our breath away. Such is the paradox of the Arctic. Its wastelands flow into oasis that are found nowhere else on the face of the earth. Many times we find ancient signs of Inuit people who lived here, superbly attuned to the land. We feel great respect for them as this landscape is a challenge at every moment.

5. We face a 35-mile open water passage across Prince Regent Inlet on Baffin Island that will take us to our ultimate goal – Pond Inlet on the Baffin Bay. The breakers look huge from the water’s edge. Leaning into the hulls, like bobsledders at the starting gate, we push as hard as we can down the gravel beach to the sea. We catch the water and keep pushing, until we have plunged waist-deep, then drag ourselves aboard. Immediately, we begin paddling with every ounce of effort. Sweat pours off our bodies. Ahead of us, looming gray-white through the fog, we see a massive iceberg riding the current like the ghost of a battleship. There is no wind to fill our sails and steady the boat, and the chaotic motion soon brings sea-sickness. Slowly, the wind begins to build. Prince Regent Inlet now looks ominous with wind and waves. The frigid ocean hits us in the face and chills us to the bone.

6. We were on the fine edge. Everything at the Arctic that had taught us over the last 90 days was now being tested. We funneled all that knowledge, skill, teamwork, and spirit into this momentous crossing… If we went over in these seas, we could not get the boat back up. Suddenly, the wind speed plummeted to zero as quickly as it had begun…. Now, we were being pushed by the convulsing waves toward sheer 2,000 -foot cliffs. Two paddles were our only power. Sailing past glacier-capped mountains, we approached the end of our journey. At 5:08 in the morning of our hundredth day, speeding into Baffin Bay, the spray from our twin hulls makes rainbows in the sun as we complete the first sail-powered voyage through the Northwest Passage.

7. We have journeyed through these waters on their terms, moved by the wind, waves, and current. The environment has always been in control of our destiny; we have only tried to respond in the best possible way. We’ve been awake for nearly 23 hours, but we cannot sleep. The joy and excitement are too great. Our Hobie Cat rests on the rocky beach, the wind whistling in her rigging, her bright yellow hulls radiant in the morning sunlight. She embodies the watchword for survival in the Arctic adaptability. [CBSE Sample Paper 2016]

A. On the basis of your understanding of the passage, answer the following questions by choosing the most appropriate option. (1 × 5 = 5 marks)

Question (i)
(a) Author’s sailing adventure through the Northwest Passage
(b) Flora and fauna of the Arctic
(c) Survival skills needed while sailing
(d) Saving of the Arctic
(d) Saving of the Arctic

Question (ii)
Why were bowhead whales killed for?
(a) Whale oil and bone
(c) Flesh and bone
(d) None of these
(a) Whale oil and bone

Question (iii)
What does “Lords of the Arctic” refer to?
(a) Windbreakers
(b) Icebergs
(c) Polar bears
(d) Inuits
(c) Polar bears

Question (iv)
What is the name of the author’s sailing vessel?
(a) Prince Regent
(b) Hobie Cat
(c) Perception
(d) Arctic
(b) Hobie Cat

Question (v)
What does ‘we were on the fine edge’ refer to?
(a) The Prince Regent Inlet
(b) The ominous sail
(c) The frigid ocean
(d) Their expedition
(b) The ominous sail

B. Answer the following questions briefly. (1 × 7 = 7marks)

Question (i)
Why does the author feel disappointed when the bowhead whale disappeared into the ocean?
The author senses the presence of the author and his friend and quickly sounds, j They are disappointed because they only had good intentions. They are sad to know the whale doesn’t trust humans.

Question (ii)
How does his sailing partner rationalise it?
Mike thinks how foolish it would be for this mighty beast to put any faith in them. After all, they are members of the species that had almost sent the bowhead into extinction with the greed for whale oil and bone.

Question (iii)
What reason does the author give for the thriving wildlife in the Arctic?
According to the author, on the edge of a huge shoal, the frigid ocean currents upswell and mix nutrients that provide a feast for the food chain. This would lead to thriving wildlife in the Arctic.

Question (iv)
What is the paradox of the Arctic?
In some regions, the land is totally devoid of life, while in others, the pulse of life takes our breath away. Its wastelands flow into an oasis that is found nowhere else on the face of the earth.

Question (v)
How did certain skills help the author and his partner survive the adventure?
Knowledge, skill, teamwork, and spirit helped the author and his partner to survive the adventure.

Question (vi)
Find a word from the passage (para-4) which means ‘an area of territory owned or controlled’.
domain

Question (vii)
Find a word from the passage (para-7) which means ‘the act of arranging dishonestly for the result of something’.
rigging

V. Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow. (12 marks)

1. With the recent increase in the price of petrol, any alternative source of fuel would be readily accepted by the people. It is also a fact that people are increasingly becoming conscious of the environmental hazards accompanying the use of non – renewable sources of energy such as petroleum. Several steps have been taken by different countries to promote affordable energy supplies, enhance public health, economic well–being, and environmental quality. One such step includes the development of alternative fuels which can be used in vehicles. Such vehicles that run on fuels other than the traditional petroleum or diesel are called alternate fuel vehicles.

2. Alternative fuels include biodiesel, compressed natural gas, ethanol, hydrogen, and liquefied petroleum gas. Some of these can be produced within the country which would eventually reduce our dependence on imported oil while some of the others are derived from renewable sources. But these cause less pollution than petrol or diesel.

3. Biodiesel can be produced domestically and it is a renewable fuel that can be manufactured from vegetable oils, animal fats, or recycled restaurant grease for use in diesel vehicles. Though biodiesel’s physical properties are similar to those of petroleum diesel, it is a cleaner burning alternative. The advantage of using biodiesel in place of petroleum or diesel is that it reduces emissions. It is safe, biodegradable, and produces fewer air pollutants than petroleum-based diesel.

4. Ethanol is a renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. The use of ethanol is widespread especially in countries such as the United States of America. The use of ethanol too can reduce our dependence upon foreign oil and reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

5. Hydrogen is also an emission-free alternative fuel that can be produced from diverse domestic energy sources. Research is underway to make hydrogen vehicles suitable for widespread use. Following the development of a new technology which allows the natural gas to be stored in a cheap and practical way, hydrogen fuel could be set to become a viable environmentally friendly alternative to petrol. This technology utilizes materials that soak up hydrogen like a sponge and then compresses them in tiny plastic beads which in turn behave like a liquid. Hydrogen is being aggressively explored as a fuel for passenger vehicles. It can be used in fuel cells to power electric motors or burned in internal combustion engines. It is an environmentally friendly fuel that has the potential to dramatically reduce our dependence on foreign oil since it can be produced domestically from several sources. It is also environmentally friendly since hydrogen produces no air pollutants or greenhouse gases when used in fuel cells.

6. Natural gas is a domestically produced gaseous fuel that is easily available. This clean-burning alternative fuel can be used in vehicles as either compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquefied natural gas (LNG). It is gradually becoming the popular choice of fuel since it is cleaner, hotter, and brighter than other fuels.

7. Propane, also known as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) or autogas, has been used worldwide as a vehicle fuel for decades. It is stored as a liquid. LPG – fuelled vehicles produce fewer toxic and smog-forming air pollutants. LPG is usually less expensive than petroleum, and most of the LPG used can be produced from domestic sources.

5.1 Choose the correct option.

(a) The word “hazards’, in paragraph 1, means ……..
i. threats
ii. sources
iii. none of the above

(b) A ………………………….. substance or chemical can be changed to a harmless natural state by the action of bacteria, and will therefore not damage the environment.
i. greenhouse
ii. biodiesel

(a) Why would people welcome any alternative source of fuel other than petrol?
(b) Give some examples of alternative fuels.
(c) What is the advantage of using biodiesel in place of petroleum?
(d) What is ethanol?
(e) Why does the author feel that hydrogen fuel could be set to become a viable environmentally friendly alternative to petrol?
(f) Why is natural gas gaining popularity?

5.3 Pick out the words from the passage which mean the opposite of the following.

(a) inflated (para 6)
(b) hostile (para 5)

♦ Unsolved Passages:

I. Read the following passage carefully. (12 marks)

1. It was the year 2020. My nephew, Karthik, who had come to spend his summer vacation with me, was watching TV. He was thirteen and just like any adolescent of his age, was full of questions. After a busy day at work, all I wanted was to rest. The moment I saw Karthik, I knew he was, as always, bustling with curiosity, and I knew that now there will be no rest.

2. As it was raining, I made tea, sandwiches and pakoras for us. I sat down to talk to him about his studies. He made a quick reply about them going well and brushed aside the rest of the questions. He was more interested in something else. It was the news flash: India celebrates fifth anniversary of its successful mission to Mars. I knew now what his questions will be. Since I was working on something related to India’s mission to Mars at my office, I knew I could satisfy his curiosity. He wanted to know all about Mangalyaan, formally known as the Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM).

3. So, I started telling him all about it. India’s mission to Mars was conceived in 2010 and launched in 2013. MOM successfully injected into Mars’ orbit on September 24, 2014. I told him how it was in fact the first time that any country had made it to the Martian orbit in the very first attempt (NASA took two attempts to get so far; the Soviet Union, three). The main purpose was to map the red planet’s surface and for a better analysis of Martian atmosphere. I thought I had told him the basics and there would not be too many questions now. But he was all ready with the next question, “Why are they calling it a budget player?” “Simply because it cost only $74 million, a fraction of the$ 671 million cost of the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s latest Mars program. In fact, our Prime Minister Narendra Modi boasted that India has spent less to reach Mars than Hollywood producers spent on the movie ‘Gravity’, which costed $100 million to make.” 4. “But how did this happen, how did India manage to hold costs down?” asked Karthik. I told him that India relied on technologies that it had used before and kept the size of the payload small, around 15 kilograms. Realising that the word payload might be tough for him to understand, I told him that it was infact the load carried by a vehicle exclusive of what is necessary for its operation. I also told him that India saved on fuel by using a smaller rocket to put its spacecraft into earth’s orbit first, to gain enough momentum to slingshot it towards Mars. Grinning, Karthik asked me, “So Aunty, what is special about MOM?” 5. “Well, it weighs around 1,337 kg and is about the size of a car. According to Professor Jitendra Goswami, the director of the institute and the man behind the discovery, the payload is tiny, just 14.5 kg (32 lbs), small enough to take on as cabin baggage.” 6. I sat there thinking about the controversies that MOM had to go through. Critics had pointed out that MOM and India’s investment in space did not seem to make sense when almost 30 per cent of India’s population live below the poverty line. Economist Jean Dreze once said about the mission, “It seems to be a part of the India’s elite delusional quest for superpower status”. But then I remembered the words of the chairman of ISRO about how ISRO’s budget represents only one per cent of the national budget and from that, the expenditure for MOM exploration was only seven per cent. 7. Thinking back on our conversation, I began to think whether Karthik had understood all the big terms and concepts that I used. I asked him, “So did you understand everything that I was talking about?” 8. “Well, not everything, but enough to know that India has succeeded where most of the others had failed”. 9. When all the food was over and Karthik had still not moved to wash his hands, I looked at him. He was sitting there, clearly dreaming. Upon prodding, he said, “Well, I was thinking, how great it would be to become an astronaut. I can move around in space, meet aliens, maybe make a new house there. It would be fun to have a picnic there. We can, in fact, promote it as a tourist place. We can also have a short stoppage at the moon and some other planets. Do you think we can take a contract for arranging all this? What do you say, Aunty?” 10. What could I say; I smiled and wished that his dreams would come true. Both of us sat there with the television running and dozing off. He lost in his dreams of going to Mars, and me, Karthik told me later, snoring. A. On the basis of your understanding of the passage, answer the following questions by choosing the most appropriate option. (1 × 5 = 5 marks) (i) When was MOM launched? (a) 2010 (b) 2011 (c) 2013 (d) 2014 (ii) How many attempts did NASA make to reach Mars? (a) Two (b) Three (c) Four (d) One (iii) What was the size of the payload? (a) 15 kg (b) 14 kg (c) 16 kg (d) 17 kg (iv) What was the other name of MOM? (a) Mangalyaan (b) Mars Orbit Mission (c) Mangalgrehyaan (d) Shubhyaan (v) What was the cost of Mangalyaan? (a)$ 84 million
(b) $108 million (c)$ 74 million
(d) $100 million B. Answer the following questions briefly. (1 × 7 = 7 marks) (i) Why did the narrator feel that she could satisfy Karthik’s curiosity? (ii) What was the main purpose of MOM? (iii) Why is MOM called a budget player in the passage? (iv) How did India manage to keep the cost low for the mission? (v) What are the special features of MOM? (vi) Find a word from the passage (para-6) which means ‘the total amount of money spent’. (vii) Find a word from the passage (para-10) which means ‘sleeping’. B. Read the following passage carefully. (12 marks) 1. Gone are the days when going to school was like any other ritual. Elders in the house would fix a specific day as shubh muhurat for going to school and puja would be performed before a child was put to a school, then called pathshala. The child would then seek the blessings of his elders and his teacher (called guru) to complete his education and to come out with flying colours. Guru, the teacher, would always treat his pupil like his own child and teach him till he was completely satisfied with his or her performance. 2. But it seems now that over a period of time, the whole concept of education has changed. Now, getting a child into a school is a billion-dollar question and a real nightmare experience for the parents. The moment a toddler starts spreading his wings, the parents start worrying about his admission, which school they should send him to, or which school they can afford. They are even ready to spend more than what their pocket allows; after all it is the future of their child—the poor child who does not even know how to talk properly! 3. Our public schools are always in the limelight with the onset of the admission season. They are set with their colourful advertisements for admission to various classes. After all the admission procedures are over, one would start expecting a call letter. The moment a call letter is received, mothers have a tough time in making their small children sit and teach them to remember certain things which would open the door for their future (getting into a particular school). The child who hardly knows anything has to follow his mother so that she could make him scribble a few things on paper. They have to go through this exercise to make a name. 4. Then comes the due day for the mind-boggling exercise-the interview. Parents start swinging between dos and don’ts, whether their child will make it or not. The moment you enter the school, you find beautifully dressed young kids with their parents huddled together to try their luck. For children, it is exactly the same situation as we elders face when we are told to attend a party where no one is known to us and where we simply find ourselves in a precarious situation as to what and what not to do. When we, the grown-ups cannot adjust to such gatherings, how do we expect our small children to be free in such an atmosphere? It is a real trauma for a child, who saw an unfamiliar face, starts crying, and that eventually becomes his negative point for his admission. He might be knowing what all he is expected to answer in such an interview but fails in his preliminary round. Is this a real test of his capability? Is this what determines his eligibility for admission? 5. Anyway, children are taken in batches followed by their anxious parents. God knows what the child is being asked to do. The parents are asked questions about their education, job, since when they are residing in the city, etc. 6. In another school, I talked to a parent who couldn’t get her daughter admitted because she had not put her in some preparatory school. This became a negative point for her daughter’s admission. Is it mandatory for parents to send their children to preparatory schools who have just learned how to stretch their limbs and can murmur a few words which most of the people are unable to understand? 7. Minister for Health and Primary Education, Delhi Government, amicably suggested that it is the moral duty of parents to give not only bookish knowledge to their children but an environment where they can be nurtured to learn about their own culture and heritage by any mode (be it dance, art, painting, music, etc.) depending upon the child’s talent. He further laid emphasis on the fact that our duty doesn’t end by sending children to schools at early dawn, collecting them and sending them to tuitions and finally making them sit in front of the so-called idiot box. The child has to be mentally and morally educated besides being physically educated. His words were really a take-home lesson for every sensible parent. 8. But to some extent, I do blame parents because it is their eagerness to put their child in a reputed school. Parents do have a lot of pressure from different walks of life but should not presume that once the child goes to a popular school, the problem is solved. The parents should give quality time to their children and make sure that their children can do their best, even if they are not admitted to these popular schools. A. On the basis of your understanding of the passage, answer the following questions by choosing the most appropriate option. (1 × 5 = 5 marks) (i) As soon as a toddler starts walking, what are his parents worried about? (a) His future (b) His health (c) His admission (d) His growth (ii) After all the admission procedures are over, what would one expect? (a) Money for the admission (b) Immediate admission (c) Good education (d) Immediate classes (iii) What comes into the limelight at the onset of the admission season? (a) The child (b) Public schools (c) Parents (d) The stationery shops (iv) What is the mind-boggling exercise where parents start swinging between dos and don’ts? (a) Admission (b) Interview (c) Raising a child (d) Searching for the best school (v) What is the most important thing that parents should give to their child? (a) Good food (b) Good clothes (c) Quality education (d) Quality time B. Answer the following questions briefly. (1 × 7 = 7 marks) (i) In what respect is going to school today different from what it used to be in the olden days? (ii) What is the plight of the parents and that of children before the schooling begins? (iii) In spite of the coaching done by the parents, children fail to perform well. Why? (iv) “It is exactly the same situation we elders face…” Explain. (v) Why do the parents want their children to be put in a popular school? (vi) Find a word from the passage (para-3) which means ‘to write or draw something quickly or carelessly’. (vii) Find a word from the passage (para-4) which means ‘fit to be chosen’. III. Read the following passage carefully. (12 marks) 1. If you enjoy watching crime shows on TV, you know that fingerprints play a major role in identifying people. But, you might be surprised to find out that using fingerprints for identification is not a new science. In fact, it is very old – dating back at least as far as 1885-1913 B.C.E. In Babylon, when people agreed to a business contract, they pressed their fingerprints into the clay in which the contract was written. Thumbprints have also been found on clay seals from ancient China. 2. In 14th century Persia, which is now Iran, a government doctor recognised that all fingerprints are different. In 1684, a British doctor, Nehemiah Grew, spoke about the ridged surfaces of the fingers. In 1686, a professor of anatomy (the study of the structure of the human body) named Marcello Malpighi, wrote about the ridges and loops in fingerprints. Malpighi’s work was considered so important that a layer of skin found on the fingertips was named after him. This layer of skin is called the Malpighian layer. Although scientists had studied fingerprints, the value (ii) Who wrote about fingerprints in 1686? (a) Henry Faulds (b) Charles Darwin (c) Nehemiah Grew (d) Sir William James Herschel (iii) Who uses a variation of the Galton-Henry system? (a) FBI (b) Japanese Hospital (c) Henry Faulds (d) the United States (iv) Where was the use of fingerprinting in identification originated? (a) Britain (b) China (c) India (d) Iran (v) Why are fingerprints checked in a classified job? (a) Because they may not discuss your work (b) Because they work only with fingerprints (c) Because they work with automated systems (d) To be sure of any criminal background B. Answer the following questions briefly. (1 × 7 = 7 marks) (i) How were fingerprints used in ancient times? (ii) Define anatomy. (iii) What is Malpighian layer? (iv) Why did Sir William James Herschel ask people to put their handprints on contracts? (v) How long does it take the IAFIS to find someone’s fingerprints? (vi) Find a word from the passage (para-1) which means ‘to recognise someone or something’. (vii) Find a word from the passage (para-4) which means ‘to invent a plan or system’. IV. Read the following passage carefully. (12 marks) 1. It’s a common refrain: Youngsters today are becoming westernised. Parents lament that if they ask their kids to accompany them to the temple, they pull a long face. But all these may just be nothing other than popular perceptions. A survey conducted by hindustantimes.com shows that 68 percent of youth today believe in a higher power, 43 percent visit the temple every day and around 60 percent admit that going to the temple gives them mental satisfaction. They want to show their devotion to God. 2. The survey also shows that rather than making them superstitious, a faith in a higher being, visiting temples, and wearing religious symbols, such as a Kada or a sacred thread gives them a sense of strength. 3. Clinical psychologist, Seema Sharma says, “In this stress-ridden life of ours, we need to fall back on something for which we have to be sure that it is more powerful than us. Developing faith in anyone’s relevant thing in our life is mandatory. Psychological anarchy is prevented if we have something on which we can put our trust.” 4. It was a decade or so back that a trendy youngster would consider it middle-class to admit that they kept fasts and visited the temple. It was in vogue to sneer at the temple-going variety, though the snob brigade might be doing it themselves. 5. But not now. Things have changed. “Children have become more logical. They believe in God but only as far as they find any logic in this because they have started analysing the situation. They are open to any kind of discussion, so they don’t shy away to be ritualistic as a few years back they were”, says Madhu Kansal, the Principal of Delhi International School. 6. They wear their kadas, and cross with confidence and don’t hide it inside their tees, though around 45 percent will not wear religious prints because they feel it is demeaning to their religion and 36 percent will not use religious tones as ringtones for their mobile phones. Their logic: “Why display?” 7. Conservative it may sound but a huge difference in the attitude of today’s youth towards God is visible. Calling God nicknames would be unthinkable for the older generation who hold the entity in awe and fear. Not so with the youth today. They seem to blend their orthodox beliefs with a fun quotient perfectly, in their relationship with God. For them: God is “cool”. 8. Senior BJP leader, Sushma Swaraj says, “Youngsters are not hypocrites. They don’t believe in displaying but believe in truth. They are ready to face anything and have a friendly relationship with God. They have given nicknames to their favourite Gods, such as Roly Poly for Lord Ganesh and Hanu for Hanuman. Gods are their buddies.” 9. What also emerges from the survey is that many visit temples and observe rituals because their family insists. Says Pinky Nigam, a student of Hindu college, “Family plays a crucial role and perhaps is one of the most significant determinants of a child’s religious discourse.” 10. Aishwarya Sakhuja agrees, “Yes, you will see me with a dupatta on my head in a puja but that’s all about it. I do it to keep my family happy.” 11. Sociologist D.L. Seth, a member of Centre for the Study of Developing Societies says, “Life is becoming uncertain. People want some mental peace, there is a higher sense of insecurity, and being ritualistic is not really attached to being superstitious. It is not necessary that a ritualistic person may be superstitious and a superstitious person may be ritualistic.” 12. That seems to be the blend then, spiritual but realistic. Kuchipudi dancer, Raja Reddy, talking of his own children, says, “My children want to know everything about our religious rites; they know Kuchipudi but choreograph western compositions.” 13. Life today is fast, furious, and fickle, but Gen-X seems to have found the formula to fight back: Blend your religious faith with practical sense, draw strength and solace from it but don’t foster blind faith. Practise rituals, if it makes your family happy. You can do this much for them even if you do not believe in it. 14. Anura Jain, 18, sums it up, “There is God, but he just can’t give everything to 10 million people!” A. On the basis of your understanding of the passage, answer the following questions by choosing the most appropriate option. (1 × 5 = 5 marks) (i) What percentage of youth believes in a higher power? (a) 68% (b) 60% (c) 45% (d) 36% (ii) What gives a sense of strength to the youngsters? (a) Visiting Temples (b) Wearing religious symbols (c) Making them superstitious (d) None of these (iii) Why will 45 % of youngsters not wear religious prints? (a) Because they feel that it is just a display (b) Because they feel that it is demeaning (c) Because they feel that it is funny (d) Because they feel that it is less trendy (iv) Who holds a fun quotient with God? (a) Elder generation (b) Younger generation (c) Small children (d) Everyone (v) What is the most significant determinant of a child’s religious discourse? (a) Friends (b) Family (c) Relatives (d) Environment B. Answer the following questions briefly. (1 × 7 = 7 marks) (i) What does the author mean by, ‘All these may just be little other than popular perceptions’? (ii) What does the survey conducted by hindustantimes.com reveal about youngster’s belief in God? (iii) Compare the scenario of the youngster’s belief a decade back with that of the present time. (iv) What do certain youngsters do in order to avoid making a display of their religious beliefs? (v) What are the certain things that youngsters do to support their view of god is cool’? (vi) Find a word from the passage (para-4) which means ‘modern and influenced by the most recent fashions or idea’. (vii) Find a word from the passage (para-7) which means ‘a feeling of great respect mixed with fear’. V. Read the following passage carefully. (12 marks) 1. We hear the word ‘smart cities’ often these days. So what is it? Is it a city where everyone is smart or where only smart people are allowed? Or is it a futuristic city upon entry of which people will become smart? 2. It is, however, something entirely different. Just to give you an idea-Think of sensors monitoring water levels, energy usage, traffic flows, and security cameras, and sending that data directly to city administrators. Or applications that help residents navigate traffic, report potholes and vote. Or trash collection that’s totally automated. This is what a ‘smart city’ will have. In fact, the term generally refers to cities using information technology to solve urban problems. It is also used to enhance performance and well-being, to reduce costs and resource consumption, and to engage more effectively and actively with its citizens. It will help in confronting overcrowding, traffic congestion, pollution, resource constraints, inadequate infrastructure, and the need for continuing economic growth. It will also have reduced crime, safer streets, and neighbourhood. In all, there will be a general improvement in the quality of life. 3. The key ‘smart’ sectors include transport, energy, healthcare, water and waste. A smart city should be able to respond faster to city and global challenges than one with a simple ‘transactional’ relationship with its citizens. It engages effectively with local people in local governance and the decision by use of open innovation processes and e-participation with emphasis placed on citizen participation and co-design. It makes good use of the creative industries, supported by a strong knowledge and social networks, voluntary organisations in a low-crime setting to achieve these aims. 4. The terms ‘intelligent city’ and ‘digital city’ are also used interchangeably with the smart cities. 5. You may wonder, why there is a sudden interest in smart cities. It is due to major challenges, including climate change, economic restructuring, the move to online retail and entertainment, ageing populations, and pressures on public finances. 6. So, how does it work? The Smart Cities Council, an industry-backed outfit that advocates the concept in India, describes them as cities that control data gathered from smart sensors through a smart grid to create a city that is liveable, workable, and sustainable. According to the Smart Cities Council, all the data that is collected from sensors – electricity, gas, water, traffic, and other government analytics – is carefully compiled and integrated into a smart grid and then fed into computers that can focus on making the city as efficient as possible. 7. This allows authorities to have real-time information about the city around them, and allows computers to attempt “perfect operations”, such as balancing supply and demand on electricity networks, synchronising traffic signals for peak usage, and optimising energy networks. India is urbanising at an unprecedented rate, so much that estimates suggest that nearly 600 million Indians will be living in cities by 2030, up from 290 million as reported in the 2001 census. A McKinsey Global Institute study estimated that cities would generate 70% new jobs by 2030, produce more than 70% of the Indian gross domestic product and drive a fourfold increase in per capita income across the country. 8. The concept of ‘smart cities’ as satellite towns of larger ones was enunciated in last month’s budget by the new NDA government which has allocated a sum of ? 7,060 crores for the plan. In his budget speech, Jaitley mentioned about exactly why the government believes the need for spending money on 100 smart cities. He claimed that “unless new cities are developed to accommodate the burgeoning number of people, the existing cities would soon become unliveable.” According to the urban development ministry, the focus will not be just 100 cities, but all urban areas across the country 100 cities, however, remain a tentative figure, with much still to be pinned down. The budget speech only officially identified cities along with the Amritsar-Kolkata Industrial Master Plan, which covers seven states. Although they weren’t named in the budget, seven cities have also been named along the Delhi- Mumbai Industrial Corridor, some of which would overlap with the Amritsar-Kolkata plan. Officially, the budget only pointed out three cities in the Chennai-Bengaluru Industrial Corridor: Ponneri in Tamil Nadu, Krishnapatnam in Andhra Pradesh, and Tumkur in Karnataka. 9. The secretary, Sudhir Krishna has asked the National Institute of Urban Affairs to work on the smart city project, based on a framework that covers overall smartness and sustainability. For now, the focus will be on a much smaller number of cities in states where conditions are amenable before. The government even attempts to look at expanding to cover 100 urban areas. 10. 70 crore per city will clearly not be enough, and even if more is added, it’s unlikely that the government will have resources to pay for the cities. The government announced that it was relaxing norms for foreign direct investment to make it easier for outside companies to invest in smart cities. In addition, India has spoken to France, Japan, and Singapore about collaborating on the projects. A. On the basis of your understanding of the passage, answer the following questions by choosing the most appropriate option. (1 × 5 = 5 marks) (i) What are the key to ‘smart’ sectors? (a) Transport and energy (b) Healthcare and water (c) Energy and waste (d) All of these (ii) How do smart cities engage with local people? (a) By e-participation (b) By open-innovation (c) Both (a) and (b) (d) By meeting people regularly (iii) Who estimated that cities would generate 70% new jobs by 2030? (a) Smart Cities Council (b) Global Institute (c) Smart Sectors (d) City Administrators (iv) What does the McKinsey Global Institute study suggest about India’s GDP in the future? (a) It will increase more than 70% (b) It will decrease more than 70% (c) It will decrease more than 60% (d) It will increase more than 50% (v) How many states does the Amritsar-Kolkata Industrial Master Plan cover? (a) Six (b) Five (c) Eight (d) Seven B. Answer the following questions briefly. (1 × 7 = 7 marks) (i) What are ‘smart cities’? (ii) What does the author mean by, ‘India is urbanising at an unprecedented rate’? (iii) Why is there a sudden interest in smart cities? (iv) Why does the government feel that there is a need for spending money on 100 smart cities? (v) How is the government generating resources for the formation of smart cities? (vi) Find a word from the passage (para-3) which means ‘use of any new idea or method’. (vii) Find a word from the passage (para-8) which means ‘to provide with a place to live’. VI. Read the following passage carefully. (12 marks) 1. Till as late as the 1960s, we believed that one of the major differences between us and the rest of the animal kingdom was our ability to make and use tools. But then, our egos suffered a devastating blow: in the jungles of Gombe in Africa, Jane Goodall observed a chimpanzee pluck and trim a stem of grass and insert it into a termite mound. The furious termites climbed up the stem only to be happily eaten up by the chimp. The chimp kept repeating the process. He had, in fact, fashioned his own fishing rod and gone fishing for termites. We were not alone! And that was not all. Chimps were also observed using rocks to bash open hard shells and fruits (which other monkeys also do), to throw them at their enemies and wave sticks around. Even worse, adolescent females, especially, were seen sharpening sticks with their teeth and thrusting these like spears into hollows where bush-babies were hiding I fear and then checked the spear tips for blood! Chimps were also seen chewing up leaves and using these like sponges to suck up water from the waterholes to enable them to drink. 2. The gorillas and orangutans were not far behind. In 2005, a western lowland gorilla (a lady, this time) was observed picking up a stick and using it to check the depth of a pool she wanted to cross. Then, she used it as a walking stick. Orangutans (as well as chimpanzees) have been observed using broad leaves as umbrellas during downpours – and orangutans that are accustomed to our company (never a good influence) imitate the way we wash clothes by the riverbank or use a saw to cut wood. 3. Elephants designed fly-whisks and backscratchers from branches and used strips of chewed up bark to plug small waterholes (which they had dug) to prevent the water from evaporating. Dada bulls would heave heavy logs or rocks at electric fences to short-circuit or simple destroy them. 4. Bottle-nosed dolphins have been known to cover their long noses with sponges or shells before combing the seabed for tidbits (There are many spiny creatures and sharp rocks that could otherwise injure them). 5. Crows are thought to be the smartest amongst birds and the new Caledonian crow is considered to be the Einstein among crows. Crows have been known to do the dropping-of-pebbles-in-a-pitcher of water stunt, as described in Aesop’s Fables. The American alligator has been known to arrange twigs on its head – to lure nest-building birds to come and pick them up. When they do, well, lunch is served for the alligator! 6. For long, we have exploited the poor silkworm, boiling its cocoons alive to make one of the most exquisite clothing materials known so far. But the real pros in silk production are hold your breath spiders. What caterpillars of moths and butterflies do with their mouthparts (like a magician releasing ribbons from his/ her mouth), spiders do it from the lower part of their bodies. But try as we may, we still haven’t cracked the code of how to synthesise spider silk, which can be used for everything from producing gunsights and sutures to light bulletproof jackets and seat belts. 7. What if spiders sold their silk? Imagine walking into a silk emporium run by arachnids, you would be greeted by a sales-spider: charming, young Ms/Mr Hairy legs, who would appraise you out of her/his eight or so eyes. “Welcome, welcome!” She/He would gush scanning you top-down, rubbing its hairy legs together in delight. “We have some of the finest, softest cradle silk you would ever want for your happy events. Wrapped up in it, your babies will be warm, safe, and dry as they wait to hatch. It’s super-absorbent, too, and a nappy rash will not be a problem! 8. So yes, animals use tools, but we needn’t worry. None of them have, as yet, discovered how to make fire. Though our very own black kite will with its goonda friends – spread a wildfire by dropping burning twigs in unburned areas so they can snap up even more fleeing insects and rodents. But yes, these so-called tools are primitive. 9. But then, do animals really need sophisticated tools to get what they want? Cheetahs accelerate faster than Ferraris, pit vipers have heat-seeking sensors, eagles can locate a rabbit in a field from kilometres away, sharks smell a drop of blood in a whole ruddy ocean, bats use sonar, birds, and bees see ultraviolet light, a falcon can dive at 320 kmph, snakes have a cocktail of venom that can bleed, paralyse or liquefy you to death, spiders’ silk still has us in a tizzy, chameleons and octopuses wear invisibility cloaks, and migratory birds have built-in navigation system – the list is endless! 10. We had the best brains and so we’re able to design miraculous tools. But look where we have ended up: we’ve gassed up the earth’s air, poisoned the water, and have stocked enough weaponry to destroy ourselves a million times over. So really, who is the monkey with the wrench? [CBSE 2019 SET-IT] A. On the basis of your understanding of the passage, answer the following questions by choosing the most appropriate option. (1 × 5 = 5 marks) (i) What does it indicate when chimps make their own fishing rods? (a) That animals and man have similar interests (b) That monkeys also go fishing (c) That animals like to imitate man (d) That man is an animal who likes to fish (ii) How do we know that chimps are intelligent? (a) They try and ape man (b) They use their brains to find solution to problems (c) They kill bush-babies (d) They love to eat termites (iii) Why do orangutans use big leaves during downpour? (a) Because they like big leaves when it starts to rain (b) Because they do not like heavy rain (c) Because they want to wet the leaves (d) Because the leaves can keep the rain off their bodies (iv) Why might the black kite start a fire? (a) Because it is a firebird (b) Because it is hungry and looking for food (c) Because it likes to watch fleeing animals (d) Because it eats only cooked meat (v) Why do big male elephants throw logs at electric fences? (a) Because they want to be free (b) Because they are great throwers (c) Because they enjoy the sparks thus caused (d) Because they are very strong animals B. Answer the following questions briefly. (1 × 7 = 7 marks) (i) Why are animals considered as intelligent as humans? (ii) What strategy do chimps use to open hard shells and fruits? (iii) What do elephants do to prevent water from evaporating? (iv) Give an example from the passage that proves the crow to be an intelligent bird. (v) How does a black kite spread wildfire? (vi) Find a word from the passage (para-6) which means ‘misused’. (vii) Find a word from the passage (para-7) which means ‘welcomed’. ♦ Solved Passages: I. Read the following passage carefully. (12 marks) 1. New Year is the time for resolution. Mentally, at least most of us could compile formidable lists of ‘dos and don’ts’. The same old favourites recur year in and year out with monotonous regularity. We resolve to get up early each morning, eat healthy food, exercise, be nice to people whom we don’t like, and find more time for our parents. Past experience has taught us that certain accomplishments are beyond attainment. If we remain deep-rooted liars, it is only because we have so often experienced the frustration that results from failure. 2. Most of us fail in our efforts at self-improvement because our schemes are too ambitious and we never have time to carry them out. We also make the fundamental error of announcing our resolution to everybody, so that we look even more foolish when we slip back into our bad old ways. Aware of these pitfalls, this year I attempted to keep my resolutions to myself. I limited myself to two modest ambitions, to do physical exercise every morning and to read more in the evening. An overnight party on New Year’s Eve provided me with a good excuse for not carrying out either of these new resolutions on the first day of the year, but on the second, I applied myself diligently to the task. 3. The daily exercise lasted only eleven minutes and I proposed to do them early in the morning before anyone had got up. The self-discipline required to drag myself out of bed eleven minutes earlier than usual was considerable. Nevertheless, I managed to creep down into the living room for two days before anyone found me out. After jumping about in the carpet and twisting the human frame into uncomfortable positions, I sat down at the breakfast table in an exhausted condition. It was this that betrayed me. The next morning, the whole family trooped in to watch the performance. That was really unsettling, but I fended off the taunts and jibes of the whole family good-humouredly and soon everybody got used to the idea. However, my enthusiasm waned. The time I spent at exercises gradually diminished. Little by little, the eleven minutes fell to zero. By January 10, I was back to where I had started from. I argued that if I spent less time exhausting myself at exercises in the morning, I would keep my mind fresh for reading when I got home from work. Resisting the hypnotising effect of television, I sat in my room for a few evenings with my eyes glued to a book. One night, however, feeling cold and lonely, I went downstairs and sat in front of the television pretending to read. That proved to be my undoing, for I soon got back to the old bad habit of dozing off in front of the screen. I still haven’t given up my resolution to do more reading. In fact, I have just bought a book entitled ‘How to Read a Thousand Words a Minute’. Perhaps, it will solve my problem, but I just have not had time to read it. A. On the basis of your understanding of the passage, answer the following questions by choosing the most appropriate option. (1 × 5 = 5 marks) Question (i) What were the writer’s resolutions? (a) Physical exercise in the morning (b) Read more in the evening (c) Both (a) and (b) (d) Not to make more resolutions Answer: (c) Both (a) and (b) Question (ii) How much time did the daily exercise last initially? (a) 10 minutes (b) 11 minutes (c) 5 minutes (d) 8 minutes Answer: (b) 11 minutes Question (iii) How many days did the writer continue his resolution? (a) 8 days (b) 9 days (c) 10 days (d) 7 days Answer: (b) 9 days Question (iv) What did the writer do one night, when he was feeling cold and lonely? (a) Sat in front of the TV pretending to read (b) Completed an entire book (c) Went for a walk (d) Gave up the idea of reading Answer: (a) Sat in front of the TV pretending to read Question (v) Which book did the writer buy? (a) How to Read a Thousand Words a Minute (b) How to be a Good Reader (c) How to be Firm on your Resolutions (d) The Importance of Exercising Answer: (a) How to Read a Thousand Words a Minute B. Answer the following questions briefly. (1 × 7 = 7 marks) Question (i) According to the writer, what has past experience of New Year’s resolutions taught us? Answer: The past experience of New Year’s resolutions has taught us that certain accomplishments are beyond attainment. Question (ii) According to the writer, why do most of us fail in our efforts for self-improvement? Answer: Most of us fail in our efforts for self-improvement because our schemes are too ambitious and we never have time to carry them out. Question (iii) Why is it a big mistake to announce our resolution to everybody? Answer: It is a big mistake to announce our resolution to everybody because when we do not accomplish what we had resolved, we look even more foolish. Question (iv) Why did the writer not carry out his resolution on New Year’s Day? Answer: An overnight party on New Year’s Eve provided the writer with a good excuse for not carrying out either of his new resolutions on the first day of the year. Question (v) “I fended off the taunts and jibes…”. Whose taunts and jibes is the writer talking about? Why was he being taunted? Answer: (a) The same old favourites occur with monotonous regularity. (b) We never have time to carry them out. Question (vi) Find a word from the passage (para-1) which means ‘not changing and therefore boring’. Answer: monotonous Question (vii) Find a word from the passage (para-3) which means ‘to become weaker in strength or influence’. Answer: weave II. Read the following passage carefully. (12 marks) 1. I recently had submitted an article ‘Reforming our Education System’ wherein the need for our educational system to shift its focus from insisting upon remembering to emphasizing or understanding was stressed upon. 2. This article brought back the memory of an interesting conversation between my daughter and myself in the recent times, wherein I had learnt that Economics and Physics were a few of the most difficult subjects for her as she had to mug up the answers. Though I offered to help her out with the immediate problem on hand, 1 learnt subsequently that many a time it pays to mug up the answer properly, because the teachers find it easier to evaluate that way. It seems, the more deviation there is from the way the sentences are framed in the textbook, the more risk one runs of losing marks. 3. This reminded me of a training session I had attended at work, where we were required to carry out an exercise of joining the dots that were drawn in rows of three without lifting the pen and without crossing the trodden path more than once. Though the exercise seemed quite simple, almost 95 per cent of us failed to achieve the required result, no matter how hard we tried. The instructor then informed us cheerily that it happened all the time because the dots that appeared to fit into a box like formation do not allow us to think out of the box. That was when I realised that all of us carry these imaginary boxes in our minds. Thanks to our stereotyped upbringing that forces our thinking to conform to a set of pattern. 4. “What is the harm in conforming as long as it is towards setting up a good practice?”, someone might want to ask. Perhaps, no harm done to others but to the person being confined to “think by rote” may mean being deprived of rising to the heights he/she is capable of rising to, even without the person being aware of the same. 5. If we instil too much fear of failure in the children right from the young age, the urge to conform and play safe, starts stifling the creative urge which dares to explore, make a mistake and explore again. As we know, most of the great inventions were initially considered to be most outrageous and highly impractical. It is because the people inventing the same were not bothered about being ridiculed and brave enough to think of the unthinkable that these inventions came into being. 6. For many children, studies are the most boring aspect of their lives. Learning, instead of fun is being considered the most mundane and avoidable activity. Thanks to the propagators of an educational system which is more information-oriented than knowledge-oriented. Too much of a syllabus, too many students per teacher, lack of enough hands-on exercises, teaching as a routine with the aim of completing the syllabus in time rather than with the goal of imparting knowledge, the curriculum more often than not designed keeping in view the most intelligent student rather than the average student are the important factors in this regard. Peer pressure, high expectations of the parents in an extremely competitive environment, the multitude of distractions in an era of the technological revolution are adding further to the burden on the young minds. 7. For a change, can we have some English/Hindi poems ickle, tickle, and pickle the young minds and send them on a wild goose chase for the pot of gold at the end of a rainbow? Can we have lessons in History that make the child feel proud of his heritage, instead of asking him to mug up the years of the events? Can physics and chemistry lessons be taught more in the laboratories than in the classrooms? Can a system be devised so as to make the educational excursions compulsory for schools, so that visits to historical/botanical places are ensured without fail? Can the educational institutes start off inter-school projects on the internet, the way the schools abroad do, so as to encourage the child to explore on her own and sum up her/his findings in the form of a report? 8. Finally, can we make the wonder of the childhood lost and get carried forward into adulthood, instead of forcing pre-mature adulthood on children? I, for one, have realised that it is worth doing so, hence, I have asked my child to go ahead by choosing to write the answers on her own, in her own language by giving vent to her most fanciful imagination! (Source: The Hindu) A. On the basis of your understanding of the passage, answer the following questions by choosing the most appropriate option. (1 × 5 = 5 marks) Question (i) What were the difficult subjects for the writer’s daughter? (a) Biology and Chemistry (b) Economics and Physics (c) Political Science and English (d) History and Maths Answer: (b) Economics and Physics Question (ii) Why does it pay to mug up answers? (a) Because teachers find it easy to evaluate (b) Because students find it easy to write (c) Because teachers find it easy to teach (d) Because students find it easy to remember Answer: (a) Because teachers find it easy to evaluate Question (iii) What stifles the creative urge in children? (a) The urge to be always right (b) The urge to do well in everything (c) The urge to conform and play safe (d) The urge to take risks Answer: (c) The urge to conform and play safe Question (iv) How is learning considered now? (a) An interesting activity (b) A mundane and avoidable activity (c) A fun-filled activity (d) An interesting but avoidable activity Answer: (b) A mundane and avoidable activity Question (v) What is adding further to the burden on the young minds? (a) Knowledge-oriented educational system (b) High expectations of the parents (c) Lack of hands-on exercises (d) Learning instead of fun Answer: (b) High expectations of the parents B. Answer the following questions briefly. (1 × 7 = 7 marks) Question (i) What does the article “Reforming our Education System” emphasise upon? Answer: It emphasised the need for shifting education from remembering to understanding. Question (ii) What exercise was the writer given in her training session? Answer: They had to join dots that were drawn in rows of three without lifting the pen and without going through the same path. Question (iii) What are the “imaginary boxes” referred in the passage? Answer: These are the ways of thinking that we cannot change. Question (iv) What is the harm that may occur if a person is taught to always think by rote? Answer: There is the likelihood that such a person may never rise in his ability to think. Question (v) List the factors that have made learning a very boring process. Answer: Too much syllabus; too many students per teacher; no hands-on exercise; curriculum designed for the bright child only. Question (vi) Find a word from the passage (para-3) which means ‘to behave according to the usual standards of behaviour which is accepted by the society’. Answer: conform Question (vii) Find a word from the passage (para-6) which means ‘very ordinary and therefore not interesting’. Answer: mundane III. Read the following passage carefully. (12 marks) 1. Many of us believe that ‘small’ means ‘insignificant’. We believe that small actions and choices do not have much impact on our lives. We think that it is only the big things, the big actions and the big decisions that really count. But when you look at the lives of all great people, you will see that they built their character through small decisions, small choices and small actions that they performed every day. They transformed their lives through a step-by-step or day-by-day approach. They nurtured and nourished their good habits and chipped away at their bad habits, one step at a time. It was their small day-to-day decisions that added up to make tremendous difference in the long run. Indeed, in matters of personal growth and character-building, there is no such thing as an overnight success. 2. Growth always occurs through a sequential series of stages. There is an organic process to growth. When we look at children growing up, we can see this process at work: the child first learns to crawl, then to stand and walk, and finally to run. The same is true in the natural world. The soil must first be tilled, and then the seed must be sowed. Next, it must be nurtured with enough water and sunlight, and only then it will grow, bear fruit and finally ripen, and be ready to eat. 3. Gandhi understood this organic process and used this universal law of nature to his benefit. Gandhi grew in small ways, in his day-to-day affairs. He did not wake up one day and find himself to be the “Mahatma”. In fact, there was nothing much in his early life that showed signs of greatness. But from his mid-twenties, he deliberately and consistently attempted to change himself, reform himself and grow in some small way every day. Day-by-day, hour-by-hour, he risked failure, experimented and learnt from the mistakes. In small and large situations alike, he took up rather than avoid responsibility. 4. People have always marvelled at the effortless way in which Gandhi could accomplish the most difficult tasks. He displayed great deal of self-mastery and discipline which was amazing. These things did not come easily to him. Years of practice and disciplined training went into making his success possible. Very few saw his struggles, fears, doubts and anxieties, or his inner efforts to overcome them. They saw the victory but not the struggle. 5. This is a common factor in the lives of all great people: they exercised their freedoms and choices in small ways that made great impact on their lives and their environment. Each of their small decisions and actions, added up to have a profound impact in the long run. By understanding this principle, we can move forward, with confidence, in the direction of our dreams. Often, when our “ideal goal” looks too far from us, we become easily discouraged, disheartened and pessimistic. However, when we choose to grow in small ways, taking small steps one at a time, it becomes easy to achieve the goal. [CBSE Sample Paper 2015] A. On the basis of your understanding of the passage, answer the following questions by choosing the most appropriate option. (1 × 5 = 5 marks) Question (i) What do many of us believe? (a) Small choices and small actions are performed every day (b) There is no such thing as an overnight success (c) Small actions and choices do not have much impact on our lives (d) ‘Small’ means ‘significant’ Answer: (c) Small actions and choices do not have much impact on our lives Question (ii) What does the writer mean by saying ‘chipped away at their bad habits’? (a) Steadily gave up bad habits (b) Slowly produced bad habits (c) Gradually criticised bad habits (d) Did not like bad habits Answer: (a) Steadily gave up bad habits Question (iii) Which of the following statement is true in the context of the third paragraph? (a) Gandhi became great overnight. (b) Gandhi showed signs of greatness in childhood itself. (c) Every day, Gandhi made efforts to change himself in some small way. (d) Gandhi never made mistakes. Answer: (c) Every day, Gandhi made efforts to change himself in some small way. Question (iv) Why have people always marvelled Gandhi? (a) For his effortless way to accomplish difficult tasks (b) For his great deal of self-mastery and discipline (c) For his fears, doubts and anxieties (d) For his struggle Answer: (a) For his effortless way to accomplish difficult tasks Question (v) What do great people do to transform their lives? (a) They approach life on a day-by-day basis. (b) They build character in small ways. (c) They believe in performing everyday. (d) All of these Answer: (b) They build character in small ways. B. Answer the following questions briefly. (1 × 7 = 7 marks) Question (i) What is “organic process of growth”? Answer: They have an impact gradually. Slowly good habits are nurtured and bad habits are given up. Question (ii) What, according to the writer, is the ‘universal law of nature’? Answer: Growth of a child is an example of an organic process. The child first learns to crawl, then to stand and walk and finally to run. Question (iii) How did Gandhi accomplish the most difficult tasks effortlessly? Answer: According to the author, the ‘universal law of nature’ is that growth is gradual. Question (iv) Which part of Gandhi’s life is not seen by most people? Answer: Gandhiji accomplished the most difficult tasks effordessly by practice, self-mastery and discipline. He worked on small things and learnt from his mistakes. Question (v) How can we achieve our ‘ideal goals’? Answer: Gandhi’s struggles, fears, doubts and anxieties, or his inner efforts to overcome them were not seen by most people. Question (vi) Find a word from the passage (para-3) which means ‘intentionally’ or ‘purposely’. Answer: deliberately Question (vii) Find a word from the passage (para-5) which means ‘of deep significance’. Answer: profound IV. Read the following passage carefully. (12 marks) 1. One of the greatest sailing adventures of the past 25 years was the conquest of the Northwest Passage, powered by sail, human muscle, and determination. In 100 days, over three summers (1986-88), Jeff Maclnnis and Mike Beedell accomplished the first wind-powered crossing of the Northwest Passage. 2. In Jeff Maclnnis’s words…Our third season. We weave our way through the labyrinth of ice, and in the distance, we hear an unmistakable sound. A mighty bowhead whale is nearby, and its rhythmic breaths fill us with awe. Finally, we see it relaxed on the surface, its blowhole quivering like a volcanic cone, but it senses our presence and quickly sounds. We are very disappointed. We had only good intentions – to revel in its beautiful immensity and to feel its power. Mike thinks how foolish it would be for this mighty beast to put any faith in us. After all, we are .members of the species that had almost sent the bowhead into extinction with our greed for whale oil and bone. It is estimated that around 38,000 bowheads were killed off eastern Baffin Island in the 1800s; today, there are about 200 left. 3. The fascinating and sometimes the terrifying wildlife keeps us entertained during our explorations. Bearded harp and ring seals greet us daily. The profusion of bird life is awesome; at times, we see and smell hundreds and thousands of thick¬billed murres clinging to their cliffside nests. Our charts show that we are on the edge of a huge shoal where the frigid ocean currents upswell and mix nutrients that provide a feast for the food chain. At times, these animals scare the living daylights out of us. They have a knack of sneaking up behind us and then shooting out of the water and belly, flopping for maximum noise and splash. A horrendous splash coming from behind has a heart-stopping effect in polar bear country. 4. We have many encounters with the “Lords of the Arctic”, but we are always cautious, observant, and ever so respectful that we are in their domain. In some regions, the land is totally devoid of life, while in others, the pulse of life takes our breath away. Such is the paradox of the Arctic. Its wastelands flow into oasis that are found nowhere else on the face of the earth. Many times we find ancient signs of Inuit people who lived here, superbly attuned to the land. We feel great respect for them as this landscape is a challenge at every moment. 5. We face a 35 mile open water passage across Prince Regent Inlet on Baffin Island that will take us to our ultimate goal – Pond Inlet on Baffin Bay. The breakers look huge from the water’s edge. Leaning into the hulls, like bobsledders at the starting gate, we push as hard as we can down the gravel beach to the sea. We catch the water and keep pushing, until we have plunged waist deep, then drag ourselves aboard. Immediately, we begin paddling with every ounce of effort. Sweat pours off our bodies. Ahead of us, looming gray-white through the fog, we see a massive iceberg riding the current like the ghost of a battleship. There is no wind to fill our sails and steady the boat, and the chaotic motion soon brings sea-sickness. Slowly, the wind begins to build. Prince Regent Inlet now looks ominous with wind and waves. The frigid ocean hits us in the face and chills us to the bone. 6. We were on the fine edge. Everything at the Arctic that had taught us over the last 90 days was now being tested. We funneled all that knowledge, skill, teamwork, and spirit into this momentous crossing… If we went over in these seas, we could not get the boat back up. Suddenly, the wind speed plummeted to zero as quickly as it had begun…. Now, we were being pushed by the convulsing waves toward sheer 2,000 -foot cliffs. Two paddles were our only power. Sailing past glacier capped mountains, we approached the end of our journey. At 5:08 in the morning of our hundredth day, speeding into Baffin Bay, the spray from our twin hulls makes rainbows in the sun as we complete the first sail powered voyage through the Northwest Passage. 7. We have journeyed through these waters on their terms, moved by the wind, waves and current. The environment has always been in control of our destiny; we have only tried to respond in the best possible way. We’ve been awake for nearly 23 hours, but we cannot sleep. The joy and excitement are too great. Our Hobie Cat rests on the rocky beach, the wind whistling in her rigging, her bright yellow hulls radiant in the morning sunlight. She embodies the watchword for survival in the Arctic adaptability. [CBSE Sample Paper 2016] A. On the basis of your understanding of the passage, answer the following questions by choosing the most appropriate option. (1 × 5 = 5 marks) Question (i) What is the passage about? (a) Author’s sailing adventure through the Northwest Passage (b) Flora and fauna of the Arctic (c) Survival skills needed while sailing (d) Saving of the Arctic Answer: (d) Saving of the Arctic Question (ii) Why were bowhead whales killed for? (a) Whale oil and bone (b) Head and tail (c) Flesh and bone (d) None of these Answer: (a) Whale oil and bone Question (iii) What does “Lords of the Arctic” refer to? (a) Wind breakers (b) Icebergs (c) Polar bears (d) Inuits Answer: (c) Polar bears Question (iv) What is the name of the author’s sailing vessel? (a) Prince Regent (b) Hobie Cat (c) Perception (d) Arctic Answer: (b) Hobie Cat Question (v) What does ‘we were on the fine edge’ refer to? (a) The Prince Regent Inlet (b) The ominous sail (c) The frigid ocean (d) Their expedition Answer: (b) The ominous sail B. Answer the following questions briefly. (1 × 7 = 7marks) Question (i) Why does the author feel disappointed when the bowhead whale disappeared into the ocean? Answer: The author senses the presence of the author and his friend and quickly sounds, j They are disappointed because they only had good intentions. They are sad to know the whale doesn’t trust humans. Question (ii) How does his sailing partner rationalise it? Answer: Mike thinks how foolish it would be for this mighty beast to put any faith in them. After all, they are members of the species that had almost sent the bowhead into extinction with the greed for whale oil and bone. Question (iii) What reason does the author give for the thriving wildlife in the Arctic? Answer: According to the author, on the edge of a huge shoal, the frigid ocean currents upswell and mix nutrients that provide a feast for the food chain. This would lead to a thriving wildlife in the Arctic. Question (iv) What is the paradox of the Arctic? Answer: In some regions, the land is totally devoid of life, while in others, the pulse of life takes our breath away. Its wastelands flow into oasis that are found nowhere else on the face of the earth. Question (v) How did certain skills help the author and his partner survive the adventure? Answer: Knowledge, skill, teamwork, and spirit helped the author and his partner to survive the adventure. Question (vi) Find a word from the passage (para-4) which means ‘an area of territory owned or controlled’. Answer: domain Question (vii) Find a word from the passage (para-7) which means ‘the act of arranging dishonestly for the result of something’. Answer: rigging V. Read the following passage carefully. (12 marks) 1. I was in Hyderabad, giving a lecture, when a 14-year-old girl asked me for my autograph. I asked her what her goal in life was. She replied, “I want to live in a developed India.” For her, you and I will have to build this developed India. You must proclaim: India is not an underdeveloped nation; it is a highly-developed nation. 2. Allow me to come back with vengeance. Got ten minutes for your country? YOU say that our government is inefficient. YOU say that our laws are too old. YOU say that the municipality does not pick up the garbage. YOU say that the phones don’t work, the railways are a joke, the airline is the worst in the world and mails never reach their destinations. YOU say that our country has been fed to the dogs and is the absolute pit. YOU say, say and say. 3. What do YOU do about it? Take a person on his way to Singapore. Give him a name – YOURS. Give him a face – YOURS. YOU walk out of the airport and you are at your international best. In Singapore, you don’t throw cigarette butts on the roads or eat in the stores. YOU are as proud of their Underground Links as they are. You pay$ 5 (approx. 60) to drive through Orchard Road (equivalent of Mahim Causeway or Pedder Road) between 5 p.m. and 8 p.m.

4. YOU come back to the parking lot to punch your parking ticket, if you have overstayed in a restaurant or a shopping mall, irrespective of your status or identity. In Singapore, you don’t say anything, DO YOU? YOU wouldn’t dare to eat in public during Ramadan in Dubai. YOU would not dare to go out without your head covered in Jeddah. YOU would not dare to buy an employee of the telephone exchange in London at 10 pounds (? 650) a month to “see to it that my STD and ISD calls are billed to someone else.” YOU would not dare to speed beyond 55 mph (88 kph) in Washington and then tell the traffic cop, “Do you know who I am? I am so and so’s son. Take your two bucks and get lost.” YOU wouldn’t chuck an empty coconut shell anywhere other than the garbage pail on the beaches in Australia and New Zealand. Why don’t YOU spit paan on the streets of Tokyo? Why don’t YOU use examination jockeys or buy fake certificates in Boston? We are still talking of the same YOU.

5. YOU, who can respect and conform to a foreign system in other countries but cannot in your own. YOU, who will throw papers and cigarettes on the road, the moment you touch Indian ground. If you can be an involved and appreciative citizen in an alien country, why cannot you be the same here in India. Once in an interview, the famous ex-municipal commissioner of Bombay Mr Tinaikar had a point to make, “Rich people’s dogs are walked on the streets to leave their affluent droppings all over the place,” he said. “And then the same people turn around to criticise and blame the authorities for inefficiency and dirty pavements. What do they expect the officers to do? Go down with a broom every time their dog feels the pressure in his bowels? In America, every dog owner has to clean up after his pet has done the job. Same is in Japan. Will Indian citizens do that here?” He’s right.

6. We go to the polls to choose a government and after that forfeit all responsibility. We sit back wanting to be pampered and expect the government to do everything for us whilst our contribution is totally negative. We expect the government to clean up, but we are not going to stop chucking garbage all over the place nor are we going to stop to pick up a stray piece of paper and throw it in the bin. We expect the railways to provide clean bathrooms, but we are not going to learn the proper use of bathrooms. We want Indian Airlines and Air India to provide the best of food and toiletries, but we are not going to stop pilfering at the least opportunity. This applies even to the staff, who is known not to pass on the service to the public.

When it comes to burning social issues like those related to women, dowry, girl- child and others, we make loud protests and continue to do the reverse at home. Our excuse? “It’s the whole system which has to change, how will it matter if I alone forego my son’s rights to a dowry.” So who’s going to change the system? What does a system consist of? Very conveniently for us, it consists of our neighbours, other households, other cities, other communities and the government. But definitely not me and YOU.

7. When it comes to us, in making a positive contribution to the system, we lock ourselves along with our families into a safe cocoon and look into the distance at countries far away and wait for a Mr Clean to come along and work miracles for us with a majestic sweep of his hand, or we leave the country and run away. Like lazy cowards, hounded by our fears, we run to America to bask in their glory and praise their system. When New York becomes insecure, we run to England. When England experiences unemployment, we take the next flight out to the Gulf. When the Gulf is war struck, we demand to be rescued and brought home by the Indian government. Everybody is out to abuse and rape the country. Nobody thinks of feeding the system. Our conscience is mortgaged to money.

8. Dear Indians, the article is highly thought inductive, calls for a great deal of introspection and pricks one’s conscience too….I am echoing J. F. Kennedy’s words to his fellow Americans to relate to Indians….

9. “Ask What we Can Do for India and Do What has to be Done to Make India What America and Other Western Countries a Today”.

10. Let’s do what India needs from us.

A. On the basis of your understanding of the passage, answer the following questions by
choosing the most appropriate option. (1 × 5 = 5 marks)

Question (i)
What was the writer doing in Hyderabad?
(a) Touring with friends
(b) Giving a lecture
(c) Attending a function
(d) Organising an event
(b) Giving a lecture

Question (ii)
What was the 14-year-old girl’s goal in life?
(a) To live in a developed India
(b) To become an astronaut
(c) To become a scientist
(d) To make her country proud of her
(a) To live in a developed India

Question (iii)
What happens after choosing a government?
(a) We expect the government to do everything
(b) We forfeit all responsibilities
(c) We want to be pampered
(d) All of these
(d) All of these

Question (iv)
What does a system consist of?
(a) Our neighbours and other households
(b) The government
(c) Other cities and other communities
(d) All of us
(d) All of us

Question (v)
Where do Indians run when New York becomes insecure?
(a) England
(b) Gulf
(c) India
(d) Japan
(a) England

B. Answer the following questions briefly. (1 × 7 = 7 marks)

Question (i)
What are the negative remarks we make about our country?
Government is inefficient; laws too old; municipality does not pick up garbage; phones don’t work; railways a joke; airline is the worst in the world; mails don’t reach their destinations.

Question (ii)
How does an Indian behave in Singapore?
In Singapore, an Indian is at his international best; doesn’t throw cigarette butts on roads; eat in stores; pays 5 dollars to drive through Orchard Road.

Question (iii)
List two deeds an Indian would not dare to do while travelling abroad.
Indians do not dare to eat in public during Ramadan in Dubai; go out in Jedah without covering their heads; do not dare to bribe an employee of telephone exchange in London; do not dare to speed beyond 55 mph in Washington; do not chuck empty coconut shell anywhere; do not spit paan on streets.

Question (iv)
What is our attitude towards elections and social issues?
We go to polls to choose a government and after that forfeit all responsibilities expecting the government to do everything for us. For social issues, make loud protestations and continue to do the reverse at home.

Question (v)
What do you understand by the statement, “Our conscience is mortgaged to money”?
It means that we leave the country and run away to make more money; we don’t do anything to improve our country.

Question (vi)
Find a word from the passage (para-6) which means ‘to steal things of small value’.
pilfering

Question (vii)
Find a word from the passage (para-8) which means ‘the examination or observation’.
introspection

♦ Unsolved Passages:

I. Read the following passage carefully. (12 marks)

1. It was the year 2020. My nephew, Karthik, who had come to spend his summer vacation with me, was watching TV. He was thirteen and just like any adolescent of his age, was full of questions. After a busy day at work, all I wanted was to rest. The moment I saw Karthik, I knew he was, as always, bustling with curiosity, and I knew that now there will be no rest.

2. As it was raining, I made tea, sandwiches and pakoras for us. I sat down to talk to him about his studies. He made a quick reply about them going well and brushed aside the rest of the questions. He was more interested in something else. It was the news flash: India celebrates fifth anniversary of its successful mission to Mars. I knew now what his questions will be. Since I was working on something related to India’s mission to Mars at my office, I knew I could satisfy his curiosity. He wanted to know all about Mangalyaan, formally known as the Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM).

3. So, I started telling him all about it. India’s mission to Mars was conceived in 2010 and launched in 2013. MOM successfully injected into Mars’ orbit on September 24, 2014. I told him how it was in fact the first time that any country had made it to the Martian orbit in the very first attempt (NASA took two attempts to get so far; the Soviet Union, three). The main purpose was to map the red planet’s surface and for a better analysis of Martian atmosphere. I thought I had told him the basics and there would not be too many questions now. But he was all ready with the next question, “Why are they calling it a budget player?” “Simply because it cost only $74 million, a fraction of the$ 671 million cost of the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s latest Mars program. In fact, our Prime Minister Narendra Modi boasted that India has spent less to reach Mars than Hollywood producers spent on the movie ‘Gravity’, which costed $100 million to make.” 4. “But how did this happen, how did India manage to hold costs down?” asked Karthik. I told him that India relied on technologies that it had used before and kept the size of the payload small, around 15 kilograms. Realising that the word payload might be tough for him to understand, I told him that it was infact the load carried by a vehicle exclusive of what is necessary for its operation. I also told him that India saved on fuel by using a smaller rocket to put its spacecraft into earth’s orbit first, to gain enough momentum to slingshot it towards Mars. Grinning, Karthik asked me, “So Aunty, what is special about MOM?” 5. “Well, it weighs around 1,337 kg and is about the size of a car. According to Professor Jitendra Goswami, the director of the institute and the man behind the discovery, the payload is tiny, just 14.5 kg (32 lbs), small enough to take on as cabin baggage.” 6. I sat there thinking about the controversies that MOM had to go through. Critics had pointed out that MOM and India’s investment in space did not seem to make sense when almost 30 per cent of India’s population live below the poverty line. Economist Jean Dreze once said about the mission, “It seems to be a part of the India’s elite delusional quest for superpower status”. But then I remembered the words of the chairman of ISRO about how ISRO’s budget represents only one per cent of the national budget and from that, the expenditure for MOM exploration was only seven per cent. 7. Thinking back on our conversation, I began to think whether Karthik had understood all the big terms and concepts that I used. I asked him, “So did you understand everything that I was talking about?” 8. “Well, not everything, but enough to know that India has succeeded where most of the others had failed”. 9. When all the food was over and Karthik had still not moved to wash his hands, I looked at him. He was sitting there, clearly dreaming. Upon prodding, he said, “Well, I was thinking, how great it would be to become an astronaut. I can move around in space, meet aliens, may be make a new house there. It would be fun to have picnic there. We can, in fact, promote it as a tourist place. We can also have a short stoppage at moon and some other planets. Do you think we can take a contract for arranging all this? What do you say Aunty?” 10. What could I say; I smiled and wished that his dreams would come true. Both of us sat there with the television running and dozing off. He lost in his dreams of going to Mars, and me, Karthik told me later, snoring. A. On the basis of your understanding of the passage, answer the following questions by choosing the most appropriate option. (1 × 5 = 5 marks) (i) When was MOM launched? (a) 2010 (b) 2011 (c) 2013 (d) 2014 (ii) How many attempts did NASA make to reach Mars? (a) Two (b) Three (c) Four (d) One (iii) What was the size of the payload? (a) 15 kg (b) 14 kg (c) 16 kg (d) 17 kg (iv) What was the other name of MOM? (a) Mangalyaan (b) Mars Orbit Mission (c) Mangalgrehyaan (d) Shubhyaan (v) What was the cost of Mangalyaan? (a)$ 84 million
(b) $108 million (c)$ 74 million
(d) 100 million B. Answer the following questions briefly. (1 × 7 = 7 marks) (i) Why did the narrator feel that she could satisfy Karthik’s curiosity? (ii) What was the main purpose of MOM? (iii) Why is MOM called a budget player in the passage? (iv) How did India manage to keep the cost low for the mission? (v) What are the special features of MOM? (vi) Find a word from the passage (para-6) which means ‘the total amount of money spent’. (vii) Find a word from the passage (para-10) which means ‘sleeping’. B. Read the following passage carefully. (12 marks) 1. Gone are the days when going to school was like any other ritual. Elders in the house would fix a specific day as shubh muhurat for going to school and puja would be performed before a child was put to a school, then called pathshala. The child would then seek the blessings of his elders and his teacher (called guru) to complete his education and to come out with flying colours. Guru, the teacher, would always treat his pupil like his own child and teach him till he was completely satisfied with his or her performance. 2. But it seems now that over a period of time, the whole concept of education has changed. Now, getting a child into a school is a billion-dollar question and a real nightmare experience for the parents. The moment a toddler starts spreading his wings, the parents start worrying about his admission, which school they should send him to, or which school they can afford. They are even ready to spend more than what their pocket allows; after all it is the future of their child—the poor child who does not even know how to talk properly! 3. Our public schools are always in the limelight with the onset of the admission season. They are set with their colourful advertisements for admission to various classes. After all the admission procedures are over, one would start expecting a call letter. The moment a call letter is received, mothers have a tough time in making their small children sit and teach them to remember certain things which would open the door for their future (getting into a particular school). The child who hardly knows anything has to follow his mother, so that she could make him scribble a few things on paper. They have to go through this exercise to make a name. 4. Then comes the due day for the mind-boggling exercise-the interview. Parents start swinging between dos and don’ts, whether their child will make it or not. The moment you enter the school, you find beautifully dressed young kids with their parents huddled together to try their luck. For children, it is exactly the same situation as we elders face when we are told to attend a party where no one is known to us and where we simply find ourselves in a precarious situation as to what and what not to do. When we, the grown-ups cannot adjust to such gatherings, how do we expect our small children to be free in such an atmosphere? It is a real trauma for a child, who seeing an unfamiliar face, starts crying and that eventually becomes his negative point for his admission. He might be knowing what all he is expected to answer in such an interview but fails in his preliminary round. Is this a real test of his capability? Is this what determines his eligibility for admission? 5. Anyway, children are taken in batches followed by their anxious parents. God knows what the child is being asked to do. The parents are asked questions about their education, job, since when they are residing in the city, etc. 6. In another school, I talked to a parent who couldn’t get her daughter admitted because she had not put her in some preparatory school. This became a negative point for her daughter’s admission. Is it mandatory for parents to send their children to preparatory schools who have just learned how to stretch their limbs and can murmur a few words which most of the people are unable to understand? 7. Minister for Health and Primary Education, Delhi Government, amicably suggested that it is the moral duty of parents to give not only bookish knowledge to their children, but an environment where they can be nurtured to learn about their own culture and heritage by any mode (be it dance, art, painting, music, etc.) depending upon the child’s talent. He further laid emphasis on the fact that our duty doesn’t end by sending children to schools at early dawn, collecting them and sending them to tuitions and finally making them sit in front of the so-called idiot box. The child has to be mentally and morally educated besides being physically educated. His words were really a take-home lesson for every sensible parent. 8. But to some extent, I do blame parents because it is their eagerness to put their child in a reputed school. Parents do have a lot of pressure from different walks of life but should not presume that once the child goes to a popular school, the problem is solved. The parents should give quality time to their children and make sure that their children can do the best, even if they are not admitted to these popular schools. A. On the basis of your understanding of the passage, answer the following questions by choosing the most appropriate option. (1 × 5 = 5 marks) (i) As soon as a toddler starts walking, what are his parents worried about? (a) His future (b) His health (c) His admission (d) His growth (ii) After all the admission procedures are over, what would one expect? (a) Money for the admission (b) Immediate admission (c) Good education (d) Immediate classes (iii) What comes into the limelight at the onset of the admission season? (a) The child (b) Public schools (c) Parents (d) The stationery shops (iv) What is the mind-boggling exercise where parents start swinging between dos and don’ts? (a) Admission (b) Interview (c) Raising a child (d) Searching for the best school (v) What is the most important thing that parents should give to their child? (a) Good food (b) Good clothes (c) Quality education (d) Quality time B. Answer the following questions briefly. (1 × 7 = 7 marks) (i) In what respect is going to school today different from what it used to be in the olden days? (ii) What is the plight of the parents and that of children before the schooling begins? (iii) In spite of the coaching done by the parents, children fail to perform well. Why? (iv) “It is exactly the same situation we elders face…” Explain. (v) Why do the parents want their children to be put in a popular school? (vi) Find a word from the passage (para-3) which means ‘to write or draw something quickly or carelessly’. (vii) Find a word from the passage (para-4) which means ‘fit to be chosen’. III. Read the following passage carefully. (12 marks) 1. If you enjoy watching crime shows on TV, you know that fingerprints play a major role in identifying people. But, you might be surprised to find out that using fingerprints for identification is not a new science. In fact, it is very old – dating back at least as far as 1885-1913 B.C.E. In Babylon, when people agreed to a business contract, they pressed their fingerprints into the clay in which the contract was written. Thumbprints have also been found on clay seals from ancient China. 2. In 14th century Persia, which is now Iran, a government doctor recognised that all fingerprints are different. In 1684, a British doctor, Nehemiah Grew, spoke about the ridged surfaces of the fingers. In 1686, a professor of anatomy (the study of the structure of the human body) named Marcello Malpighi, wrote about the ridges and loops in fingerprints. Malpighi’s work was considered so important that a layer of skin found on the fingertips was named after him. This layer of skin is called the Malpighian layer. Although scientists had studied fingerprints, the value (ii) Who wrote about fingerprints in 1686? (a) Henry Faulds (b) Charles Darwin (c) Nehemian Grew (d) Sir William James Herschel (iii) Who uses a variation of the Galton-Henry system? (a) FBI (b) Japanese Hospital (c) Henry Faulds (d) United States (iv) Where was the use of fingerprinting in identification originated? (a) Britain (b) China (c) India (d) Iran (v) Why are fingerprints checked in a classified job? (a) Because they may not discuss your work (b) Because they work only with fingerprints (c) Because they work with automated systems (d) To be sure of any criminal background B. Answer the following questions briefly. (1 × 7 = 7 marks) (i) How were fingerprints used in the ancient times? (ii) Define anatomy. (iii) What is Malpighian layer? (iv) Why did Sir William James Herschel ask people to put their handprints on contracts? (v) How long does it take the IAFIS to find someone’s fingerprints? (vi) Find a word from the passage (para-1) which means ‘to recognise someone or something’. (vii) Find a word from the passage (para-4) which means ‘to invent a plan or system’. IV. Read the following passage carefully. (12 marks) 1. It’s a common refrain: Youngsters today are becoming westernised. Parents lament that if they ask their kids to accompany them to the temple, they pull a long face. But all these may just be nothing other than popular perceptions. A survey conducted by hindustantimes.com shows that 68 per cent of youth today believe in a higher power, 43 per cent visit the temple every day and around 60 per cent admit that going to the temple gives them mental satisfaction. They want to show their devotion to God. 2. The survey also shows that rather than making them superstitious, a faith in a higher being, visiting temples, and wearing religious symbols, such as a kada or a sacred thread gives them a sense of strength. 3. Clinical psychologist, Seema Sharma says, “In this stress-ridden life of ours, we need to fall back on something for which we have to be sure that it is more powerful than us. Developing faith on any one relevant thing in our life is mandatory. Psychological anarchy is prevented if we have something on which we can put our trust to.” 4. It was a decade or so back that a trendy youngster would consider it middle-class to admit that they kept fasts and visited the temple. It was in vogue to sneer at the temple-going variety, though the snob brigade might be doing it themselves. 5. But not now. Things have changed. “Children have become more logical. They believe in God but only as far as they find any logic in this because they have started analysing the situation. They are open to any kind of discussion, so they don’t shy away to be ritualistic as few years back they were”, says Madhu Kansal, the Principal of Delhi International School. 6. They wear their kadas, and cross with confidence and don’t hide it inside their tees, though around 45 per cent will not wear religious prints because they feel it is demeaning to their religion and 36 per cent will not use religious tones as ringtones for their mobile phones. Their logic: “Why display?” 7. Conservative it may sound but a huge difference in the attitude of today’s youth towards God is visible. Calling God nicknames would be unthinkable for the older generation who hold the entity in awe and fear. Not so with the youth today. They seem to blend their orthodox beliefs with a fun quotient perfectly, in their relationship with God. For them: God is “cool”. 8. Senior BJP leader, Sushma Swaraj says, “Youngsters are not hypocrites. They don’t believe in displaying but believe in truth. They are ready to face anything and have a friendly relationship with God. They have given nicknames to their favourite Gods, such as Roly Poly for Lord Ganesh and Hanu for Hanuman. Gods are their buddies.” 9. What also emerges from the survey is that many visit temples and observe rituals because their family insists. Says Pinky Nigam, a student of Hindu college, “Family plays a crucial role and perhaps is one of the most significant determinants of a child’s religious discourse.” 10. Aishwarya Sakhuja agrees, “Yes, you will see me with a dupatta on my head in a puja but that’s all about it. I do it to keep my family happy.” 11. Sociologist D.L. Seth, a member of Centre for the Study of Developing Societies says, “Life is becoming uncertain. People want some mental peace, there is a higher sense of insecurity, and being ritualistic is not really attached to being superstitious. It is not necessary that a ritualistic person may be superstitious and a superstitious person may be ritualistic.” 12. That seems to be the blend then, spiritual but realistic. Kuchipudi dancer, Raja Reddy, talking of his own children, says, “My children want to know everything about our religious rites; they know Kuchipudi but choreograph western compositions.” 13. Life today is fast, furious, and fickle, but Gen-X seems to have found the formula to fight back: Blend your religious faith with practical sense, draw strength and solace from it but don’t foster blind faith. Practise rituals, if it makes your family happy. You can do this much for them even if you do not believe in it. 14. Anura Jain, 18, sums it up, “There is God, but he just can’t give everything to 10 million people!” A. On the basis of your understanding of the passage, answer the following questions by choosing the most appropriate option. (1 × 5 = 5 marks) (i) What percentage of youth believes in higher power? (a) 68% (b) 60% (c) 45% (d) 36% (ii) What gives a sense of strength to the youngsters? (a) Visiting Temples (b) Wearing religious symbols (c) Making them superstitious (d) None of these (iii) Why will 45 % youngsters not wear religious prints? (a) Because they feel that it is just a display (b) Because they feel that it is demeaning (c) Because they feel that it is funny (d) Because they feel that it is less trendy (iv) Who holds a fun quotient with God? (a) Elder generation (b) Younger generation (c) Small children (d) Everyone (v) What is the most significant determinant of a child’s religious discourse? (a) Friends (b) Family (c) Relatives (d) Environment B. Answer the following questions briefly. (1 × 7 = 7 marks) (i) What does the author mean by, ‘All these may just be little other than popular perceptions’? (ii) What does the survey conducted by hindustantimes.com reveal about youngster’s belief in God? (iii) Compare the scenario of the youngster’s belief a decade back with that of the present time. (iv) What do certain youngsters do in order to avoid making a display of their religious beliefs? (v) What are the certain things that youngsters do to support their view of‘God is cool’? (vi) Find a word from the passage (para-4) which means ‘modern and influenced by the most recent fashions or idea’. (vii) Find a word from the passage (para-7) which means ‘a feeling of great respect mixed with fear’. V. Read the following passage carefully. (12 marks) 1. We hear the word ‘smart cities’ often these days. So what is it? Is it a city where everyone is smart or where only smart people are allowed? Or is it a futuristic city upon entry of which people will become smart? 2. It is however, something entirely different. Just to give you an idea-Think of sensors monitoring water levels, energy usage, traffic flows, and security cameras, and sending that data directly to city administrators. Or applications that help residents navigate traffic, report potholes and vote. Or trash collection that’s totally automated. This is what a ‘smart city’ will have. In fact, the term generally refers to cities using information technology to solve urban problems. It is also used to enhance performance and well-being, to reduce costs and resource consumption, and to engage more effectively and actively with its citizens. It will help in confronting overcrowding, traffic congestion, pollution, resource constraints, inadequate infrastructure, and the need for continuing economic growth. It will also have reduced crime, safer streets and neighbourhood. In all, there will be a general improvement in the quality of life. 3. The key ‘smart’ sectors include transport, energy, healthcare, water and waste. A smart city should be able to respond faster to city and global challenges than one with a simple ‘transactional’ relationship with its citizens. It engages effectively with local people in local governance and decision by use of open innovation processes and e-participation with emphasis placed on citizen participation and co-design. It makes good use of the creative industries, supported by strong knowledge and social networks, voluntary organisations in a low-crime setting to achieve these aims. 4. The terms ‘intelligent city’ and ‘digital city’ are also used interchangeably with smart city. 5. You may wonder, why there is sudden interest in smart cities. It is due to major challenges, including climate change, economic restructuring, the move to online retail and entertainment, ageing populations, and pressures on public finances. 6. So, how does it work? The Smart Cities Council, an industry-backed outfit that advocates the concept in India, describes them as cities that control data gathered from smart sensors through a smart grid to create a city that is liveable, workable and sustainable. According to the Smart Cities Council, all the data that is collected from sensors – electricity, gas, water, traffic and other government analytics – is carefully compiled and integrated into a smart grid and then fed into computers that can focus on making the city as efficient as possible. 7. This allows authorities to have real-time information about the city around them, and allows computers to attempt “perfect operations”, such as balancing supply and demand on electricity networks, synchronising traffic signals for peak usage, and optimising energy networks. India is urbanising at an unprecedented rate, so much that estimates suggest that nearly 600 million Indians will be living in cities by 2030, up from 290 million as reported in the 2001 census. A McKinsey Global Institute study estimated that cities would generate 70% new jobs by 2030, produce more than 70% of the Indian gross domestic product and drive a fourfold increase in per capita income across the country. 8. The concept of ‘smart cities’ as satellite towns of larger ones was enunciated in last month’s budget by the new NDA government which has allocated a sum of ? 7,060 crores for the plan. In his budget speech, Jaitley mentioned about exactly why the government believes the need for spending money on 100 smart cities. He claimed that “unless new cities are developed to accommodate the burgeoning number of people, the existing cities would soon become unliveable.” According to the urban development ministry, the focus will not be just 100 cities, but all urban areas across the country 100 cities, however, remain a tentative figure, with much still to be pinned down. The budget speech only officially identified cities along the Amritsar-Kolkata Industrial Master Plan, which covers seven states. Although they weren’t named in the budget, seven cities have also been named along the Delhi- Mumbai Industrial Corridor, some which would overlap with the Amritsar-Kolkata plan. Officially, the budget only pointed out three cities in the Chennai-Bengaluru Industrial Corridor: Ponneri in Tamil Nadu, Krishnapatnam in Andhra Pradesh and Tumkur in Karnataka. 9. The secretary, Sudhir Krishna has asked the National Institute of Urban Affairs to work on the smart city project, based on a framework that covers overall smartness and sustainability. For now, the focus will be on a much smaller number of cities in states where conditions are amenable before. The government even attempts to look at expanding to cover 100 urban areas. 10. 70 crore per city will clearly not be enough, and even if more is added, it’s unlikely that the government will have resources to pay for the cities. The government announced that it was relaxing norms for foreign direct investment to make it easier for outside companies to invest in smart cities. In addition, India has spoken . to France, Japan and Singapore about collaborating on the projects. A. On the basis of your understanding of the passage, answer the following questions by choosing the most appropriate option. (1 × 5 = 5 marks) (i) What are the key ‘smart’ sectors? (a) Transport and energy (b) Healthcare and water (c) Energy and waste (d) All of these (ii) How do smart cities engage with local people? (a) By e-participation (b) By open-innovation (c) Both (a) and (b) (d) By meeting people regularly (iii) Who estimated that cities would generate 70% new jobs by 2030? (a) Smart Cities Council (b) Global Institute (c) Smart Sectors (d) City Administrators (iv) What does the McKinsey Global Institute study suggest about India’s GDP in the future? (a) It will increase more than 70% (b) It will decrease more than 70% (c) It will decrease more than 60% (d) It will increase more than 50% (v) How many states does the Amritsar-Kolkata Industrial Master Plan cover? (a) Six (b) Five (c) Eight (d) Seven B. Answer the following questions briefly. (1 × 7 = 7 marks) (i) What are ‘smart cities’? (ii) What does the author mean by, ‘India is urbanising at an unprecedented rate’? (iii) Why is there a sudden interest in smart cities? (iv) Why does the government feel that there is a need for spending money on 100 smart cities? (v) How is the government generating resources for the formation of smart cities? (vi) Find a word from the passage (para-3) which means ‘use of any new idea or method’. (vii) Find a word from the passage (para-8) which means ‘to provide with a place to live’. VI. Read the following passage carefully. (12 marks) 1. Till as late as the 1960s, we believed that one of the major differences between us and the rest of the animal kingdom was our ability to make and use tools. But then, our egos suffered a devastating blow: in the jungles of Gombe in Africa, Jane Goodall observed a chimpanzee pluck and trim a stem of grass and insert it into a termite mound. The furious termites climbed up the stem only to be happily eaten up by the chimp. The chimp kept repeating the process. He had, in fact, fashioned his own fishing rod and gone fishing for termites. We were not alone! And that was not all. Chimps were also observed using rocks to bash open hard shells and fruits (which other monkeys also do), to throw them at their enemies and wave sticks around. Even worse, adolescent females, especially, were seen sharpening sticks with their teeth and thrusting these like spears into hollows where bush-babies were hiding I fear and then checked the spear tips for blood! Chimps were also seen chewing up leaves and using these like sponges to suck up water from the waterholes to enable them to drink. 2. The gorillas and orangutans were not far behind. In 2005, a western lowland gorilla (a lady, this time) was observed picking up a stick and using it to check the depth of a pool she wanted to cross. Then, she used it as a walking stick. Orangutans (as well as chimpanzees) have been observed using broad leaves as umbrellas during downpours – and orangutans that are accustomed to our company (never a good influence) imitate the way we wash clothes by the riverbank or use a saw to cut wood. 3. Elephants designed fly-whisks and backscratchers from branches and used strips of chewed up bark to plug small waterholes (which they had dug) to prevent the water from evaporating. Dada bulls would heave heavy logs or rocks at electric fences to short-circuit or simple destroy them. 4. Bottle-nosed dolphins have been known to cover their long noses with sponges or shells before combing the seabed for tidbits (There are many spiny creatures and sharp rocks that could otherwise injure them). 5. Crows are thought to be the smartest amongst birds and the new Caledonian crow is considered to be the Einstein among crows. Crows have been known to do the dropping-of-pebbles-in-a-pitcher of water stunt, as described in Aesop’s Fables. The American alligator has been known to arrange twigs on its head – to lure nest-building birds to come and pick them up. When they do, well, lunch is served for the alligator! 6. For long, we have exploited the poor silkworm, boiling its cocoons alive to make one of the most exquisite clothing materials known so far. But the real pros in silk production are hold your breath spiders. What caterpillars of moths and butterflies do with their mouthparts (like a magician releasing ribbons from his/ her mouth), spiders do it from the lower part of their bodies. But try as we may, we still haven’t cracked the code of how to synthesise spider silk, which can be used for everything from producing gunsights and sutures to light bulletproof jackets and seat belts. 7. What if spiders sold their silk? Imagine walking into a silk emporium run by arachnids, you would be greeted by a sales-spider: charming, young Ms/Mr Hairy legs, who would appraise you out of her/his eight or so eyes. “Welcome, welcome!” She/He would gush scanning you top-down, rubbing its hairy legs together in delight. “We have some of the finest, softest cradle silk you would ever want for your happy events. Wrapped up in it, your babies will be warm, safe and dry as they wait to hatch. It’s super-absorbent, too, and nappy rash will not be a problem! 8. So yes, animals use tools, but we needn’t worry. None of them have, as yet, discovered how to make fire. Though our very own black kite will with its goonda friends – spread a wildfire by dropping burning twigs in unburned areas so they can snap up even more fleeing insects and rodents. But yes, these so-called tools are primitive. 9. But then, do animals really need sophisticated tools to get what they want? Cheetahs accelerate faster than Ferraris, pit vipers have heat-seeking sensors, eagles can locate a rabbit in a field from kilometres away, sharks smell a drop of blood in a whole ruddy ocean, bats use sonar, birds and bees see ultraviolet light, a falcon can dive at 320 kmph, snakes have a cocktail of venom that can bleed, paralyse or liquefy you to death, spiders’ silk still has us in a tizzy, chameleons and octopuses wear invisibility cloaks, and migratory birds have built-in navigation system – the list is endless! 10. We had the best brains and so were able to design miraculous tools. But look where we have ended up: we’ve gassed up the earth’s air, poisoned the water and have stocked enough weaponry to destroy ourselves a million times over. So really, who is the monkey with the wrench? [CBSE 2019 SET-IT] A. On the basis of your understanding of the passage, answer the following questions by choosing the most appropriate option. (1 × 5 = 5 marks) (i) What does it indicate when chimps make their own fishing rods? (a) That animals and man have similar interests (b) That monkeys also go fishing (c) That animals like to imitate man (d) That man is an animal who likes to fish (ii) How do we know that chimps are intelligent? (a) They try and ape man (b) They use their brains to find solution to problems (c) They kill bush-babies (d) They love to eat termites (iii) Why do orangutans use big leaves during downpour? (a) Because they like big leaves when it starts to rain (b) Because they do not like heavy rain (c) Because they want to wet the leaves (d) Because the leaves can keep the rain off their bodies (iv) Why might the black kite start a fire? (a) Because it is a fire bird (b) Because it is hungry and looking for food (c) Because it likes to watch fleeing animals (d) Because it eats only cooked meat (v) Why do big male elephants throw logs at electric fences? (a) Because they want to be free (b) Because they are great throwers (c) Because they enjoy the sparks thus caused (d) Because they are very strong animals B. Answer the following questions briefly. (1 × 7 = 7 marks) (i) Why are animals considered as intelligent as humans? (ii) What strategy do chimps use to open hard shells and fruits? (iii) What do elephants do to prevent water from evaporating? (iv) Give an example from the passage that proves the crow to be an intelligent bird. (v) How does a black kite spread wildfire? (vi) Find a word from the passage (para-6) which means ‘misused’. (vii) Find a word from the passage (para-7) which means ‘welcomed’. ## Unseen Passage for Class 12 Literature With Answers 2020 This grammar section explains English Grammar in a clear and simple way. There are example sentences to show how the language is used. NCERT Solutions for Class 12 English will help you to write better answers in your Class 12 exams. Because the Solutions are solved by subject matter experts. https://ncertmcq.com/unseen-passage-for-class-12-literature/ Read all classes unseen passage with questions and answers in English ## Unseen Passage for Class 12 Literature With Answers PDF 2020 English Comprehension Passages with Questions and Answers for Grade 12 Unseen Passage For Class 12 With Answers Pdf ♦ Solved Passages: I. Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow. (12 marks) 1. You never saw such a commotion in all your life as when my Uncle Podger undertook to do a job. A picture would be waiting to be put up and Uncle Podger would say: ‘Oh, you leave that to me. Don’t you worry about that? I’ll do all that. Now you go and get me my hammer. You bring me the rule Tom, and I shall want the step – ladder and I had better have a kitchen chair too and Jim, you run round to Mr. Goggles and tell him Pa’s kind regards and hopes his leg’s better and will he lend him his spirit level? And don’t you go, Martha, because I shall want somebody to hold me the light, and when the girl comes back, she must go out again for a bit of picture – cord and Tom you come here I shall want you to hand me up the picture.’ 2. And then he would lift up the picture and drop it and it would come out of the frame, and he would try to save the glass and cut himself and then he would spring round the room, looking for his handkerchief. He could not find his handkerchief, because it was in the pocket of the coat he had taken off, and he did not know where he had put the coat. The entire house had to leave off looking for his tools and start looking for his coat, while he would dance round and hinder them. ‘Doesn’t anybody in the whole house knows where my coat is? Six of you! You can’t find a coat!’ Then he’d get up and find that he had been sitting on it, and would call out. ‘Oh, you can give it up! I’ve found it myself now.’ 3. When half an hour had been spent in tying up his finger, and a new glass had been got, and the tools, and the ladder, and the chair, and the candle had been brought, he would have another go, the whole family, including the girl and the charwoman, standing round in a semi-circle, ready to help. 4. Two people would have to hold him there, and a fourth would hand him a nail, and a fifth would pass him up the hammer, and he would take hold of the nail, and drop it. “There!’ he would say, in an injured tone, ‘now the nail’s gone’. 5. We would all have to go down on our knees and grovel for it, while he would stand on the chair, and grunt, and want to know if he was to be kept there all the evening. The nail would be found at last, but by that time he would have lost the hammer. “Where’s the hammer? Seven of you gaping round there and you don’t know what I did with the hammer?’ 6. We would find the hammer and then he would have lost sight of the mark he had made on the wall. Each of us had to get up on the chair beside him and see if we could find it, and we would each discover it in a different place and he would call us all fools. And he would take the rule, and re-measure and find that he wanted half thirty – one and three-eighths inches from the corner, and would try to do it in his head, and go mad. And we would all try to do it in our heads and all arrive at different results, and the original number would be forgotten, and Uncle Podger would have to measure it again. 7. He would use a bit of string this time and at the critical moment, when he was leaning over the chair at an angle of forty – five, and trying to reach a point on the wall, the string would slip, and down he would slide on the piano, a really fine musical effect being produced by the suddenness with which his head and body struck all the notes at the same time. 8. At last, Uncle Podger would get the spot fixed again and put the point of the nail on it with his left hand and take the hammer in his right hand. And, with the first blow, he would smash his thumb, and drop the hammer with a yell, on somebody’s toes. 9. Aunt Maria would observe that the next time Uncle Podger was going to hammer a nail into the wall;. she would go and spend a week with her mother while it was being done. ‘You women you make such a fuss over everything,’ Uncle Podger would reply. “I like doing a little job of this sort.’ Adapted from Three Men in a Boat (To Say Nothing of the Dog) by Jerome K. Jerome Unseen Passage For Class 12 1.1 Choose the correct option. (a) A charwoman is a woman …………………………….. i. who cleans houses ii. who is the head of a committee iii. none of the above (b) When the hammer had finally been found, Uncle Podger would …………………………….. i. have lost sight of the mark he had made on the wall ii. have lost the nail iii. fix the nail on the wall Unseen Passage Class 12 1.2 On the basis of your reading of the passage, answer the following questions. (a) How did Uncle Podger prepare for the task that he was going to undertake? (b) Why was looking for the handkerchief a tedious task? (c) Uncle Podger’s family was not good at mental maths. Give evidence. (d) What was Aunt Maria’s reaction to Uncle Podger’s hanging the picture? (e) Give two words to describe Uncle Podger. 1.3 Pick out the words from the passage which mean the same as the following. (a) tumult (para 1) (b) abruptness (para 7) Unseen Passage Class 12 Cbse 2020 II. Read the following passage carefully. (12 marks) 1. That large animals require luxuriant vegetation has been a general assumption which has passed from one work to another, but I do not hesitate to say that it is completely false and that it has vitiated the reasoning of geologists on some points of great interest in the ancient history of the world. The prejudice has probably been derived from India, and the Indian islands, where troops of elephants, noble forests, and impenetrable jungles are associated together in everyone’s mind. If, however, we refer to any work of travels through the southern parts of Africa, we shall find allusions in almost every page either to the desert character of the country or to the numbers of large animals inhabiting it. The same thing is rendered evident by the many engravings which have been published in various parts of the interior. 2. Dr Andrew Smith, who has lately succeeded in passing the Tropic of Capricorn, informs me that taking into consideration the whole of the southern part of Africa, there can be no doubt of its being a sterile country. On the southern coasts, there are some fine forests, but with these exceptions, the traveller may pass for days together through open plains, covered by poor and scanty vegetation. Now, if we look to the animals inhabiting these wide plains, we shall find their numbers extraordinarily great, and their bulk immense. 3. It may be supposed that although the species are numerous, the individuals of each kind are few. By the kindness of Dr Smith, I am enabled to show that the case is very different. He informs me that in one day’s march with the bullock-wagons, he saw, without wandering to any great distance on either side, between one-hundred and one-hundred and fifty rhinoceroses—the same day he saw several herds of giraffes, amounting together to nearly a hundred. 4. At the distance of a little more than one hour’s march from their place of encampment on the previous night, his party actually killed eight hippopotamuses at one spot and saw many more. In this same river, there were likewise crocodiles. Of course, it was a case quite extraordinary to see so many great animals crowded together, but it evidently proves that they must exist in great numbers. Dr Smith describes that the country passed through that day as ‘being thinly covered with grass, and bushes about four feet high, and still more thinly with mimosa trees’. 5. Besides these large animals, anyone the least acquainted with the natural history of the Cape has read of the herds of antelopes, which can be compared only with the flocks of migratory birds. The numbers indeed of the lion, panther, and hyena, and the multitude of birds of prey, plainly speak of the abundance of the smaller quadrupeds. One evening, seven lions were counted at the same time prowling round Dr Smith’s encampment. .As this, an able naturalist remarked to me, each day the carnage in Southern Africa must indeed be terrific! I confess that it is truly surprising how such a number of animals can find support in a country producing so little food. 6. The larger quadrupeds no doubt roam over wide tracts in search of it; and their food chiefly consists of underwood, which probably contains many nutrients in a small bulk. Dr. Smith also informs me that the vegetation has a rapid growth; no sooner is a part consumed, than its place is supplied by a fresh stock. There can be no doubt, however, that our ideas respecting the apparent amount of food necessary for the support of large quadrupeds are much exaggerated. The belief that where large quadrupeds exist, the vegetation must necessarily be luxuriant is more remarkable because the converse is far from true. 7. Mr. Burchell observed to me that when entering Brazil, nothing struck him more forcibly than the splendour of the South American vegetation contrasted with that of South Africa, together with the absence of all large quadrupeds. In his travels, he has suggested that the comparison of the respective weights (if there were sufficient data) of an equal number of the largest herbivorous quadrupeds of each country would be extremely curious. If we take on the one side, the elephants, hippopotamus, giraffe, bos caffer, elan, five species of rhinoceros; and on the American side, two tapirs, the guanaco, three deer, the vicuna, peccari, capybara (after which we must choose from the monkeys to complete the number), and then place these two groups alongside each other; it is not easy to conceive ranks more disproportionate in size. 8. After the above facts, we are compelled to conclude, against the anterior probability that among the Mammalia there exists no close relation between the bulk of the species, and the quantity of the vegetation in the countries which they inhabit. Adapted from: Voyage of the Beagle, Charles Darwin (1890) [CBSE Sample Paper 2016] A. On the basis of your understanding of the passage, answer the following questions by choosing the most appropriate option. (1 × 5 = 5 marks) Unseen Passage For Class 12 With Answers Question (i) What is the primary concern of the author? (a) Discussing the relationship between the size of mammals and the nature of vegetation in their habitats (b) Contrasting ecological conditions in India and Africa (c) Proving that large animals do not require much food (d) Describing the size of animals in various parts of the world Answer: Discussing the relationship between the size of mammals and the nature of vegetation in their habitats Unseen Passage For Class 12 With Answers Pdf 2020 Question (ii) According to the author, what has led to the ‘prejudice’? (a) Errors in the reasoning of biologists (b) False ideas about animals in Africa (c) Incorrect assumptions on the part of geologists (d) Doubt in the mind of the author Answer: False ideas about animals in Africa Unseen Passage Question (iii) Why are the flocks of migratory birds mentioned in the passage? (a) To describe an aspect of the fauna of South Africa (b) To illustrate a possible source of food for large carnivores (c) To contrast with the habits of the antelope (d) To suggest the size of antelope herds Answer: (c) To contrast with the habits of the antelope Unseen Passage For 12th Class Question (iv) Why does Darwin quote Burchell’s observations? (a) To counter a popular misconception (b) To describe a region of great splendour (c) To prove a hypothesis (d) To illustrate a well-known phenomenon Answer: (d) To illustrate a well-known phenomenon Class 12 English Passage Question Answer Question (v) What struck Mr Burchell, when he entered Brazil? (a) South African vegetation (b) Presence of all large quadrupeds (c) South American vegetation contrasted with that of South Africa (d) Equal number of the largest herbivorous quadrupeds Answer: (c) South American vegetation contrasted with that of South Africa Unseen Passage For Class 12th B. Answer the following questions briefly. (1 × 7 = 7marks) Question (i) What prejudice has vitiated the reasoning of geologists? Answer: The prejudice that large animals require luxuriant vegetation has vitiated the reasoning of geologists. Question (ii) Why does Dr Smith refer to Africa as a sterile country? Answer: Dr Smith refers to Africa as a sterile country. Here, the traveller may pass for days together through open plains, covered by a poor and scanty vegetation. Question (iii) What is the ‘carnage’ referred to by Dr Smith? Answer: Dr Smith refers to the number of prey animals killed by predators as carnage. Question (iv) What does Darwin’s remark, ‘if there were sufficient data’ indicate? Answer: Darwin’s remark indicates that comparison of the weights of herbivores is largely speculative. Question (v) To account for the ‘surprising’ number of animals in a ‘country producing so little food’, what partial explanation does Darwin suggest? Answer: To account for the ‘surprising’ number of animals in a country producing so little food, Darwin suggests that food requirements have been overestimated. He also suggests a rapid growth of plant material. Question (vi) Find a word from the passage (para-5) which means ‘the violent killing of large number of people’. Answer: carnage Question (vii) Find a word from the passage (para-6) which means ‘animals that have four legs’. Answer: quadrupeds III. Read the following poem carefully. (12 marks) Invictus: The Unconquerable 1. Out of the night that covers me, Black as the Pit from pole to pole, I thank whatever gods may be For my unconquerable soul. 2. In the fell clutch of circumstance I have not winced nor cried aloud, Under the bludgeonings of chance My head is bloody, but unbowed. 3. Beyond this place of wrath and tears Looms but the horror of the shade, And yet the menace of the years Finds, and shall find me, unafraid. 4. It matters not how strait the gate, How charged with punishments the scroll, I am the master of my fate: I am the captain of my soul. – W.E. Henley A. On the basis of your understanding of the poem, answer the following questions by choosing the most appropriate option. (1 × 5 = 5 marks) Question (i) What is the poem about? (a) Courage in the face of death (b) Holding on to one’s own dignity (c) The soul after death (d) Both (a) and (b) Answer: (d) Both (a) and (b) Question (ii) To what does the poet compare night? (a) Pit (b) Pole (c) Black (d) None of these Answer: (a) Pit Question (iii) What do you understand by ‘in the fell clutch of circumstance’? (a) Under cruel circumstance (b) Under sober circumstance (c) Under good circumstance (d) Under pampering circumstance Answer: (a) Under cruel circumstance Question (iv) What does the poet thank Gods for? (a) Painful situations (b) Unconquerable soul (c) Dark night (d) Wrath and tears Answer: (b) Unconquerable soul Question (v) How does the menace of the years find the poet? (a) Unafraid (b) Shaken (c) Broken (d) Peaceful Answer: (a) Unafraid B. Answer the following questions briefly. (1 × 7 = 7 marks) Question (i) What does the poet mean by ‘horror of the shade’? Answer: Because of the bludgeoning of the poet’s head with various problems. Question (ii) Why is the poet’s head bloody? Answer: According to the poet, nothing can stop the events in the future and in fact, he cannot prevent things from happening. The poet talks about the horror of death in these lines. Question (iii) What does the poet intend to mean with the word ‘charge’? Answer: By the word ‘charged’, the poet refers to all the punishments that fate has allotted him. Question (iv) What is the theme of the poem? Answer: The main theme is that one controls one’s fate more than anyone else ever will. In a world that does not care for us and often seems to be trying to destroy us, we can overcome all odds and be victorious because we alone can change our fate. Question (v) Which phrase has been used to signify ‘advancing age’? Answer: Menace of the years has been used to signify ‘advancing age’. Question (vi) Find a word from the poem (verse-1) which means ‘not able to defeat’. Answer: unconquerable Question (vii) Find a word from the poem (verse-2) which means ‘to hit someone hard with a heavy weapon’. Answer: bludgeonings IV. Read the following poem carefully. (12 marks) I had a dove, and the sweet dove died, And I have thought it died of grieving; 0 what could it grieve for? Its feet were tied With a silken thread of my own hand’s weaving: Sweet little red feet! Why would you die? Why would you leave me, sweet bird, why? You liv’d alone on the forest tree, Why, pretty thing, could you live with me? I kidd’d you oft, and gave you white peas Why not live sweetly as in the green trees? – John Keats A. On the basis of your understanding of the poem, answer the following questions by choosing the most appropriate option. (1 × 5 = 5 marks) Question (i) For what is the bird grieving? (a) Trees (b) Nature (c) Freedom (d) Love Answer: (c) Freedom Question (ii) With what did the poet tie the bird’s feet? (a) Chain (b) Cloth (c) Silk thread (d) Cotton thread Answer: (c) Silk thread Question (iii) What does ‘lived alone on the forest tree’ symbolise? (a) A dependent life (b) Freedom (c) A lonely life (d) A dull life Answer: (b) Freedom Question (iv) What does the poet personify with a dove? (a) Pretty (b) Love (c) Light (d) Death Answer: (b) Love Question (v) What does the phrase ‘its feet were tied’ mean? (a) Restrain (b) Bondage (c) Concern (d) Protection Answer: (b) Bondage B. Answer the following questions briefly. (1 × 7 = 7 marks) Question (i) What did the dove die of? Answer: The dove died grieving for a life of freedom and liberty. Question (ii) Does the poet know the cause of the dove’s death? Answer: The poet knows that the dove died of grieving, but he does not know what it grieved for. Question (iii) How did the poet satisfy the needs of the bird? Answer: The poet loved and kissed it and fed it with white peas. Question (iv) What message does the poem convey? Answer: The poem conveys the message that freedom is above everything and of the utmost importance in this world. Question (v) What did the bird grieve for? Answer: The bird grieved for the freedom which it had while living in the forest. Question (vi) Find a word from the poem which means ‘to feel and express great sadness’. Answer: grieve Question (vii) Find a word from the poem which means ‘held together with a long, thin string’. Answer: tied V. Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow. (12 marks) May, Bistritz 1. I did not sleep well, though my bed was comfortable enough for I had all sorts of queer dreams. There was a dog howling all night under my window, which may have had something to do with it; or it may have been the paprika, for I had to drink up all the water in my carafe, and was still thirsty. Towards morning I slept and was wakened by the knocking at my door, I had to hurry breakfast, for the train started a little before eight. 2. All-day long we seemed to dawdle through a country which was full of beauty of every kind. Sometimes we saw little towns or castles on the top of steep hills such as we see in old missals; sometimes we ran by rivers and streams which seemed from the wide stony margin on each side of them to be subject to great floods. It takes a lot of water and running strong, to sweep the outside edge of a river clear. At every station, there were groups of people, sometimes crowds, and in all sorts of attire. Some of them were just like the peasants at home or those I saw coming through France and Germany, with short jackets, and round hats, and home-made trousers; but others were very picturesque. 4. It was on the dark side of twilight when we got to Bistritz, which is a very interesting old place. Being practically on the frontier, it has had a very stormy existence and it certainly shows marks of it. Fifty years ago, a series of great fires took place which made terrible havoc on five separate occasions. At the very beginning of the seventeenth century, it underwent a siege of three weeks and lost 13,000 people, the casualties of war proper being assisted by famine and disease. 5. Count Dracula had directed me to go to the Golden Krone Hotel, which I found, to my great delight, to be thoroughly old–fashioned, for, of course, I wanted to see all I could of the ways of the country. 6. I was evidently expected, for when I got near the door I faced a cheery-looking elderly woman in the usual peasant dress… When I came close she bowed and said, “The Herr Englishman?’ 7. ‘Yes,’ I said, “Jonathan Harker.’ 8. She smiled and gave some message to an elderly man in white shirtsleeves, who had followed her to the door. He went, but immediately returned with a letter: 9. My friend – Welcome to the Carpathians. I am anxiously expecting you. Sleep well tonight. At three tomorrow, the diligence will start for Bukovina; a place on it is kept for you. At the Borgo Pass, my carriage will await you and will bring you to me. I trust that your journey from London has been a happy one and that you will enjoy your stay in my beautiful land – Your friend, Dracula.’ 4 May 10. I found that my landlord had got a letter from the Count, directing him to secure the best place on the coach for me; but on making inquiries as to details he seemed somewhat reticent and pretended that he could not understand my German. 11. This could not be true, because up to then he had understood it perfectly; at least, he answered my questions properly. 12. He and his wife, the old lady who had received me, looked at each other in a frightened sort of way. He mumbled out that the money had been sent in a letter, and that was all he knew. When I asked him if he knew Count Dracula, and could tell me anything of his castle, both he and his wife crossed themselves saying that they knew nothing at all and simply refused to speak further. It was all very mysterious and not by any means comforting. Just before I was leaving, the old lady came up to my room and said in a hysterical way: ‘Must you go? Oh! Young Herr, must you go?’ She was in such an excited state that she seemed to have lost her grip of what German she knew, and mixed it all up with some other language which I did not know at all. I was just able to follow her by asking a number of questions. When I told her that I must go at once and that I was engaged on important business, she asked again: 13. “Do you know what day it is?’ I answered that it was the fourth of May. She shook her head as she said again: 14. ‘Oh, yes! I know that! I know that, but do you know what day it is?’ 15. On my saying that I did not understand, she went on: ‘It is the eve of St George’s Day. Do you not know that tonight; when the clock strikes midnight, all. the evil things in the world will have full sway. Do you know where you are going, and what you are going to do?’ She was in such evident distress that I tried to comfort her, but without effect. Finally, she went down on her knees and implored me not to go; at least to wait a day or two before starting. 16. It was all very ridiculous but I did not feel comfortable. However, there was business to be done, and I could allow nothing to interfere with it. 17. I tried to raise her up and said, as gravely as I could, that I thanked her, but my duty was imperative, and that I must go. 18. She saw, I suppose, the doubt in my face, for she put the rosary round my neck and said, ‘For your mother’s sake,’ and went out of the room. 19. I am writing this part of the diary whilst I am waiting for the coach, which is, of course, late; and the crucifix is still round my neck. – An excerpt from Dracula by Bram Stoker 5.1 Choose the correct option. (a) Paprika is …………………….. i. a red powder made from a type of pepper, used in cooking as a spice ii. a particular type of meat iii. a type of green, leafy vegetable (b) The word …………………….., in paragraph 2, means “a book of hymns’. i. dawdle ii. missal iii. none of the above 5.2 On the basis of your reading of the passage, answer the questions. (a) What are the ominous signs that foretell the happenings? (b) How does the narrator describe Bistritz? How did it add to the gothic setting? (c) How was the narrator’s reception at the Golden Krone Hotel? (d) Why did the landlord and his wife’s attitude confuse the narrator? (e) What was the significance of the fourth of May? 5.3 Pick out the words from the passage which mean the same as the following. (a) scenic (para 3) (b) beseech (para 15) Unsolved Passages I. Read the following passage carefully. (12 marks) 1. ‘NOW, what I want is, Facts. Teach these boys and girls nothing but Facts. Facts alone are wanted in life. Plant nothing else, and root out everything else. You can only form the minds of reasoning animals upon Facts: nothing else will ever be of any service to them. This is the principle on which I bring up my own children, and this is the principle on which I bring up these children. Stick to the facts, sir!’ 2. The scene was a plain, bare, monotonous vault of a school-room, and the speaker’s square forefinger emphasised his observations by underscoring every sentence with a line on the schoolmaster’s sleeve. The emphasis was helped by the speaker’s square wall of a forehead, which had his eyebrows for its base, while his eyes found commodious cellarage in two dark caves, overshadowed by the wall. The emphasis was helped by the speaker’s mouth, which was wide, thin, and hard set. The emphasis was helped by the speaker’s voice, which was inflexible, dry, and dictatorial. The emphasis was helped by the speaker’s hair, which bristled on the skirts of his bald head, a plantation of firs to keep the wind from its shining surface, all covered with knobs, like the crust of a plum pie, as if the head had scarcely warehouse-room for the hard facts stored inside. The speaker’s obstinate carriage, square coat, square legs, square shoulders, nay, his very neckcloth, trained to take him by the throat with an unaccommodating grasp, like a stubborn fact, as it was – all helped the emphasis. 3. ‘In this life, we want nothing but Facts, sir; nothing but Facts!’ 4. The speaker, and the schoolmaster, and the third grown person present, all backed a little and swept with their eyes the inclined plane of little vessels then and there arranged in order, ready to have imperial gallons of facts poured into them until they were full to the brim. 5. Thomas Gradgrind, sir. A man of realities. A man of facts and calculations. A man who proceeds upon the principle that two and two are four, and nothing over, and who is not to be talked into allowing for anything over. Thomas Gradgrind, sir-imperatively Thomas-Thomas Gradgrind. With a rule and a pair of scales, and the multiplication table always in his pocket, sir, ready to weigh and measure any parcel of human nature, and tell you exactly what it comes to. It is a mere question of figures, a case of simple arithmetic. You might hope to get some other nonsensical belief into the head of George Gradgrind, or Augustus Gradgrind, or John Gradgrind, or Joseph Gradgrind (all supposititious, non-existent persons), but into the head of Thomas Gradgrind-no, sir! 6. In such terms, Mr Gradgrind always mentally introduced himself, whether to his .private circle of acquaintance or to the public in general. In such terms, no doubt, substituting the words ‘boys and girls’, for ‘sir’, Thomas Gradgrind now presented Thomas Gradgrind to the little pitchers before him, who were to be filled so full of facts. 7. Indeed, as he eagerly sparkled at them from the spacious cellar cellarage before mentioned, he seemed a kind of cannon loaded to the muzzle with facts, and prepared to blow them clean out of the regions of childhood at one discharge. He seemed a galvanising apparatus, too, charged with a grim mechanical substitute for the tender young imaginations that were to be stormed away. 8. ‘Girl number twenty,’ said Mr. Gradgrind, squarely pointing with his square forefinger, ‘I don’t know that girl. Who is that girl?’ 9. ‘Sissy Jupe, sir,’ explained number twenty, blushing, standing up, and curtseying. 10. ‘Sissy is not a name,’ said Mr. Gradgrind. ‘Don’t call yourself Sissy. Call yourself Cecilia.’ 11. ‘It’s father as he calls me Sissy, sir,’ returned the young girl in a trembling voice, and with another curtsey. 12. ‘Then he has no business to do it,’ said Mr. Gradgrind. ‘Tell him he mustn’t. Cecilia Jupe. Let me see. What is your father?’ 13. ‘He belongs to the horse-riding, if you please, sir.’ 14. Mr. Gradgrind frowned, and waved off the objectionable calling with his hand. 15. ‘We don’t want to know anything about that, here. You mustn’t tell us about that, here. Your father breaks horses, doesn’t he?’ 16. ‘If you please, sir, when they can get any to break, they do break horses in the ring, sir.’ 17. ‘You mustn’t tell us about the ring, here. Very well, then. Describe your father as a horse-breaker. He doctors sick horses, I dare say?’ 18. ‘Oh yes, sir.’ 19. ‘Very well, then. He is a veterinary surgeon, a farrier, and a horse-breaker. Give me your definition of a horse.’ 20. (Sissy Jupe was thrown into the greatest alarm by this demand.) 21. ‘Girl number twenty unable to define a horse!’ said Mr. Gradgrind, for the general benefit of all the little pitchers. ‘Girl number twenty possessed of no facts, in reference to one of the commonest of animals! Some boys’ definition of a horse. Bitzer, yours.’ (Adapted from Charles Dicken’s Hard Times) A. On the basis of your understanding of the passage, answer the following questions by choosing the most appropriate option. (1 × 5 = 5 marks) (i) How was the speaker’s voice? (a) Inflexible (b) Dry (c) Dictatorial (d) All of these (ii) Who has been called a man of realities? (a) Thomas Gradgrind (b) George Gradgrind (c) John Gradgrind (d) Joseph Gradgrind (iii) What were the little ‘pitchers’ to be filled with? (a) Water (b) Wine (c) Facts (d) Figures (iv) What was girl number twenty’s real name? (a) Augustus (b) Sissy Jupe (c) Cecilia Jupe (d) Bitzer Jupe (v) What was girl number twenty unable to do? (a) Define a horse (b) Tell about her family (c) Tell her name (d) Ride a horse B. Answer the following questions briefly. (i) What does Thomas Gradgrind believe in? (ii) What is a child’s mind compared to in this passage? Give examples. (iii) Do you think Gradgrind’s approach to education was right? Why/Why not? (iv) What is symbolic about the names of the characters in the passage? (v) What is Gradgrind’s attitude towards children? Give examples. (vi) Find a word from the passage (para-4) which means ‘the very top edge of a container’. (vii) Find a word from the passage (para-7) which means ‘to use someone or something instead of a person or thing’. II. Read the following poem carefully. (12 marks) Anger 1. Anger in its time and place May assume a kind of grace. It must have some reason for it, And not last beyond a minute. 2. If to further lengths it goes, It does into malice grow. This the difference that we see Twixt the serpent and the bee. 3. If the latter you provoke, It inflicts a hasty stroke, Puts you to some little pain, But it never stings again. 4. Close in tufted bush or brake Lurks the poison-swelled snake Nursing up his cherished wrath; In the purlieux of his path, 5. In the cold, or in the warm, Mean him good, or mean him harm, Whensoever fate may bring you, The vile snake will always sting you. – Charles and Mary Lamb A. On the basis of your understanding of the poem, answer the following questions by choosing the most appropriate option. (1 × 5 = 5 marks) (i) When is anger assumed as a kind of grace? (a) All the time (b) When it is in the correct place and time (c) Never (d) Both (b) and (c) (ii) How long is it ok for anger to last? (a) Not beyond a minute (b) Not beyond 15 minutes (c) Not beyond half an hour (d) Not beyond an hour (iii) What does anger grow into, if it remains for long? (a) Fear (b) Malice (c) Pride (d) Jealously (iv) Who lurks in the tufted bush? (a) Snake (b) Bee (c) Poet (d) None of these (v) When will the vile snake sting? (a) In the cold (b) In the warm (c) Never (d) Both (a) and (b) B. Answer the following questions briefly. (1 × 7 = 7 marks) (i) What do lines 1 and 2 suggest about the emotion ‘anger’? (ii) Why do you think that anger which lasts beyond a minute becomes dangerous? (iii) What does ‘provoke’ suggest of the temperament of the bee? (iv) How does the anger of the bee differ from that of the snake? (v) What does the poet compare the anger of the snake with? (vi) Find a word from the poem (verse-3) which means ‘to try to annoy’. (vii) Find a word from the poem (verse-4) which means ‘extreme anger’. III. Read the following passage carefully. (12 marks) 1. A stout old lady was walking with her basket down the middle of a street in Petrograd to the great confusion of the traffic and with no small peril to herself. It was pointed out to her that the pavement was the place for pedestrians, but she replied: ‘I’m going to walk where I like. We’ve got liberty now.’ It did not occur to the dear old lady that if liberty entitled the pedestrian to walk down the middle of the road, then the end of such liberty would be universal chaos. Everybody would be getting in everybody else’s way and nobody would get anywhere. Individual liberty would have become social anarchy. 2. There is a danger of the world getting liberty-drunk these days like the old lady with the basket, and it is just as well to remind ourselves of what the rule of the road means. It means that in order that the liberties of all may be preserved, the liberties of everybody must be curtailed. When the policeman, at Piccadilly Circus steps into the middle of the road and puts out his hand, he is the symbol not of tyranny but of liberty. You may not think so. You may, being in a hurry, and seeing your car pulled up by this insolence of office, feel that your liberty has been outraged. How dare this fellow interfere with your free use of the public highway? Then if you are a reasonable person, you will reflect that if he did not interfere with you, he would interfere with no one, and the result would be that Piccadilly Circus would be a maelstrom that you would never cross at all. You have submitted to a curtailment of private liberty in order that you may enjoy a social order which makes your liberty a reality. 3. Liberty is not a personal affair only but a social contract. It is an accommodation of interests. In matters which do not touch anybody else’s liberty, of course, I may be as free as I like. If I choose to go down the road in a dressing-gown, who shall say me nay? You have the liberty to laugh at me, but I have the liberty to be indifferent to you. And if I have a fancy for dyeing my hair, or waxing my moustache (which heaven forbid), or wearing an overcoat and sandals, or going to bed late or getting up early, I shall follow my fancy and ask no man’s permission. I shall not inquire of you whether I may eat mustard with my mutton. And you will not ask me whether you may follow this religion or that, whether you may prefer Ella Wheeler Wilcox to Wordsworth, or champagne to a shandy. 4. In all these and a thousand other details, you and I please ourselves and ask no one’s leave. We have a whole kingdom in which we rule alone, can do what we choose, be wise or ridiculous, harsh or easy, conventional or odd. But directly we step out of that kingdom, our personal liberty of action becomes qualified by other people’s liberty. I might like to practice on the trombone from midnight till three in the morning. If I went on to the top of Everest to do it, I could please myself, but if I do it in my bedroom, my family will object, and if I do it out in the streets, the neighbours will remind me that my liberty to blow the trombone must not interfere with their liberty to sleep in quiet. 5. There are a lot of people in the world, and I have to accommodate my liberty to their liberties. We are all liable to forget this, and unfortunately, we are much more conscious of the imperfections of others in this respect than of our own. A reasonable consideration for the rights or feelings of others is the foundation of social conduct. 6. It is in the small matters of conduct, in the observance of the rule of the road, that we pass judgment upon ourselves, and declare that we are civilised or uncivilised. The great moments of heroism and sacrifice are rare. It is the little habits of commonplace intercourse that make up the great sum of life and sweeten or make the journey bitter. (Adapted from an essay by George Orwell) A. On the basis of your understanding of the passage, answer the following questions by choosing the most appropriate option. (1 × 5 = 5 marks) (i) Where was the stout lady walking? (a) In the middle of a street (b) Pavement (c) Garden (d) Highway (ii) What is ‘rule of the road’ according to the author? (a) Not to walk in the middle of the road (b) To be considerate towards others (c) Not to overtake others (d) Not to drive rashly (iii) What would have become social anarchy? (a) To get liberty drunk (b) Individual liberty (c) Personal affair (d) Liberty to laugh (iv) What is the major danger in today’s world? (a) Of the society getting liberty-drunk (b) Of the society behaving in a rash manner (c) Of the society living poorly (d) Of people not cooperating with others (v) What is the foundation of social conduct? (a) Liberty to sleep in quiet (b) Symbol of tyranny (c) Consideration for the rights or feelings of others (d) Heroism and sacrifice B. Answer the following questions briefly. (1 × 7 = 7 marks) (i) What is the author’s attitude towards the old lady in the passage? (ii) How would ‘individual liberty become social anarchy’? (iii) What does the sentence, ‘It means….curtailed’ (para-2) mean? (iv) Which sentence best sums up the author’s main point? (v) ‘We are all liable….’ (para-5). What does the author refer to? (vi) Find a word from the passage (para-2) which means ‘to stop something before it is finished’. (vii) Find a word from the passage (para-3) which means ‘the freedom to live as you wish’. IV. Read the following poem carefully. (12 marks) A Poison Tree 1. I was angry with my friend; I told my wrath, my wrath did end. I was angry with my foe: I told it not, my wrath did grow. 2. And I watered it in fears, Night A morning with my tears: And I sunned it with smiles, And with soft deceitful wiles. 3. And it grew both day and night. Till it bore an apple bright. And my foe beheld it shine, And he knew that it was mine. 4. And into my garden stole, When the night had veild the pole; In the morning glad I see; My foe outstretched beneath the tree. – William Blake A. On the basis of your understanding of the poem, answer the following questions by choosing the most appropriate option. (1 × 5 = 5 marks) (i) What emotion is expressed in verse-1 of the poem? (a) Sorrow (b) Happiness (c) Anger (d) Guilt (ii) When did the poet’s wrath end? (a) After telling it (b) After taking it on the perpetrator (c) After hitting someone (d) After waiting for sometime (iii) What happened when he did not express his anger? (a) His anger grew (b) His anger ended (c) He lost his friend (d) He started hating his friend (iv) Who is the poet angry with? (a) His mother (b) His friend (c) His brother (d) His father (v) How did the poet nurture his poison tree? (a) With his fears and tears (b) With his smile (c) With his deceitful wiles (d) All of these B. Answer the following questions briefly. (1 x 7 = 7 marks) (i) What is the theme of this poem? (ii) What are the different factors which led to an increase in the poet’s anger? (iii) How does the poet feel about his anger? (iv) Does the poem offer any advice about how to deal with people who make us angry, upset, frustrated, etc.? If so, what? If not, why not? (v) What does the poet mean by ‘watered it with fears’? (vi) Find a word from the poem (verse-2) which means ‘dishonest’. (vii) Find a word from the poem (verse-4) which means ‘to move quietly without being noticed’. V. Read the following passage carefully. (12 marks) 1. “But have you been to Nimtita? Have you been to the palace there?” asked the old man in the tea-shop, with the thatched roof. We were in the village of Lalgola, one hundred and fifty miles from Kolkata, and we had just seen our thirteenth nobleman’s palace and found it unsuitable. 2. “Nimtita? Where is that?” we asked without much interest. We had never heard of the place. “It is sixty miles to the North of here. You drive up the highway. Then you come to a river which you have to cross. A ferry will take your car across. Then up the highway again for twenty miles. A sign tells you where to branch off… It’s on the river Padma, on the eastern bank. It’s the palace of the Choudharys. I’ve been listening to your talk, and I feel you ought to see this one before you give up.” 3. We were not very hopeful. We had had enough trouble taking free advice from people who had no idea of our needs. Anyway, the question was: do we or do we not undertake this last trip? If we did not like the palace, it might mean either giving up making this film altogether or seriously changing its nature. We tossed a coin to decide whether to go or not. The coin said, “Go!”, and we set out on our sixty-mile journey. 4. It was when I was in bed with my right leg in plaster that I had decided the film on Tarasankar Banerji’s famous short story, ‘The Music Room’ (Jalsanghar). A nasty fall on the stone steps at Benaras had brought about a serious knee injury. I lay in bed and read all the Bengali books I could lay my hands on. Just then, the film distributors were not keen to take my film for distribution and maybe this was one of the things that made me choose ‘The Music Room’. 5. Here was a dramatic story which could naturally bring in music and dancing, and distributors loved music and dancing. But here, too, was a story full of feelings. So it would be satisfying for me as an artist. I would cast Chabi Biswas, our greatest actor, in the leading role of the zamindar – the zamindar whose love of the bog musical entertainments brings about his ruin. But the most important thing was to find a palace. As we had a low budget, there was no question of having studio-built sets. I knew that, if we had the money, my art director could easily build a set which looked like our old palace with the right style, but we just didn’t have the money for it. 6. Nimtita turned out to be everything that the old man had claimed – and more. No one could have described in words the feeling of utter sadness that surrounded the palace. The river Padma had changed its course over the years so that now there were endless stretches of sand where once had been villages. The palace itself-Greek pillars and all – was a perfect realisation of my dream image. It stood looking out over the stretches of sand with sad dignity. It had somehow escaped being totally destroyed when the river changed its course. The river had reached within ten years of the front of the palace – having swallowed the garden – and then stopped. Ganendra Narayan Choudhary, who is seventy and owns a British title and the palace, told us how it happened: “We were having breakfast one morning when we heard a low rumble. We went out to the veranda and saw a big chunk of our estate – almost a square mile of it – going underwater, disappearing forever. It all happened in a few seconds. Padma’s appetite is legendary.” 7. “But aren’t you afraid that the river might encroach further?” 8. “Oh, yes, the rains bring with them the usual fears.” 9. On returning from our first trip to Nimtita, I telephoned the author, Mr. Banerji. He had been just as anxious about the location as we were. 10. “We’ve found our palace, at last, Mr. Banerji,” I said. 11. “Have you? And where is it?” 12. “At a little-known place called Nimtita.” 13. “Nimtita? There was a note of recognition in his voice.” You don’t mean the palace of the Choudharys, do you?” 14. “That’s the one.” 15. “But that’s extraordinary! I haven’t been to Nimtita myself, but I have read about the Choudharys in a history of Bengal zamindars, and it was the music-loving Upendra Narayan Choudhary who served as the model for my rajah.” [CBSE 2019 SET-IT] A. On the basis of your understanding of the passage, answer the following questions by choosing the most appropriate option. (1 × 5 = 5 marks) (i) What is the profession of the writer? (a) Painter (b) Filmmaker (c) Photographer (d) Journalist (ii) What helped the writer and his friends to decide whether or not to go Nimtita? (a) The suggestion made by the old man at the tea-shop (b) Their own intuitive feeling (c) Description of the palace in a travel book (d) Tossing of a coin (iii) Why was the idea of building a set for shooting given up? (a) Shooting at a set would not give a real-life effect (b) They didn’t have money for a set (c) Building a set is very time consuming (d) Shooting at the actual palace would be more authentic (iv) Who is the central character in the story, ‘The Music Room’? (a) A local raja (b) A zamindar (c) A British official (d) An artist (v) What did the author like the most about the palace? (a) Facilities for the visitors (b) Wood carvings at the ceiling (c) Its huge central hall (d) Its Greek pillars B. Answer the following questions briefly. (1 × 7 = 7 marks) (i) What suggestion did the old man at the tea-shop make to the author and his friends? (ii) Why did the author not like the idea of taking free advice? (iii) How did the author sustain a serious injury? (iv) What brought about the ruin of the zamindar in the story, ‘The Music Room’? (v) Who was Ganendra Narayan Choudhary? (vi) Find a word from the passage (para-5) which means ‘main’. (vii) Find a word from the passage (para-9) which means ‘concerned’. VI. Read the following passage carefully. (12 marks) 1. The sage of science, Einstein, was sitting in a depressive and pensive mood one evening. His eyes were brimming with tears. The pain was evident on his face. He peeped out of the window of his room. The sun had set a few minutes back. The sky was filled with a reddish glow. At this sunset, he felt that it was humanity that had sunk into devilish darkness and the reddish glow in the sky was the blood of humanity spilling all over the sky from earth. With tired steps, he walked back to his chair and settled down. It was the 9th of August 1945. Three days back, he had felt the same agony as if someone had torn him apart. He was deeply hurt and depressed when he heard on the radio that America had dropped an atom bomb on the Japanese city, Hiroshima. Today, within three days another bomb was dropped on another city, Nagasaki and lakhs of people had been killed. 2. He had heard that the blast released so much energy that it had paled all past destructions in comparison and death had played out a pitiable dance of destruction. The flames that broke out of the bomb were burning, melting and exploding buildings. Scared of the heat of the bomb, people had jumped into lakes and rivers, but the water was boiling, and the people too were burnt and killed. The animals in the water were already boiled to death. Animals, trees, herbs, fragrant flowering plants were all turned into ashes. The atomic energy destruction had just not stopped there. It had entered the atmosphere there and had spread radiation that would affect people for generations to come and would also ring about destructive irreversible biological changes in animals and plants. 3. As the news of the atomic attack reached Einstein, and he became aware of the glaring horror of the abuse of atomic energy, his distress and restlessness knew no bounds. He could not control himself and picked up his violin to turn his mind on to other things. While playing the violin, he tried to dissolve his distress in its sad notes but couldn’t. He was burning on the embers of destruction; his heart was filled with an ocean of agony and tears just continued streaming uncontrollably out of his eyes. Night had fallen. His daughter came up and asked him to eat something as he had not taken anything for the last four days. His voice was restrained, and he said, “I don’t feel like eating.” 4. He could not sleep that night. Lying down, he was thinking how he had drawn the attention of the then American President Roosevelt towards the destructive powers of an atomic bomb. He had thought that this would be used to scare Hitler and put an end to the barbarism that Hitler was up to. However, Roosevelt kept him in the dark and made false promises. Eventually, he had abused Einstein’s equation of E=MC2 that resulted in destructive experiments. His actions had made science and scientists as murderers. Einstein kept on thinking for a long time. Eventually, he slipped into sleep. When he woke up at dawn, there was a new dawn in him too. The atomic threat had transformed his heart. 5. The next day, he decided to disassociate himself from the scientific policy of the government and all governmental institutions. He decided to open educational institutions for children, adolescents, and youth – institutions where along with science, spirituality will be compulsorily taught. 6. To inaugurate this institution, he had invited two great philosophers, Bertrand Russell and Albert Schweitzer. Ten other great scientists who had won Nobel Prizes in different fields were also invited. They all saw’ a different Einstein, not a great scientist but a sage in him. The institution was opened by garlanding a photo of Mahatma Gandhi. While garlanding the Mahatma, he became emotional and said with a lump in his throat, “I bow down to the great man who fought for the independence of his country through non-violence. He could do so because he was a truthful man and true spiritualist.” 7. Those who teach science should be taught spirituality too. Without harmony between science and spirituality, the destruction would continue unabated. A few years after this institution was built, a Japanese delegation came to meet him. Einstein broke down in the meeting and said, “You can give me any punishment and I will accept it. Anyway, I have decided to lead my life in penitence.” The Japanese were moved by his sincerity and forgot their grief. [CBSE 2019 SET-IT] A. On the basis of your understanding of the passage, answer the following questions by choosing the most appropriate option. (1 × 5 = 5 marks) (i) Besides two great philosophers how many other scientists were invited by Einstein to inaugurate the institution where spirituality would be compulsorily taught? (a) Five (b) Ten (c) Eight (d) Fifteen (ii) Which instrument did Einstein play when he was in grief? (a) Harmonium (b) Guitar (c) Violin (d) Flute (iii) How did Einstein come to know that America had dropped an atom bomb on the Japanese city? (a) Through Television (b) Through newspaper (c) Through radio (d) Through a telephonic message (iv) Which American President was told about the destructive power of an atomic bomb? (a) Kennedy (b) Bill Clinton (c) Lincoln (d) Roosevelt (v) What did Einstein say to the Japanese delegation? (a) “You can give me any punishment and I will accept it.” (b) “I am not at fault.” (c) “What could I do?” (d) “The President didn’t agree with my advice.” B. Answer the following questions briefly. (1 × 7 = 7 marks) (i) What did Einstein do to overcome his distress after getting the news of the atomic attack? (ii) Which event in 1945, according to Einstein, turned science and scientists into murderers? (iii) What did Einstein do to show his displeasure over the atomic attack? (iv) Name the philosophers that Einstein invited to inaugurate the new institution. (v) Why did Einstein want harmony between science and spirituality while teaching in educational institutes? (vi) Find a word from the passage (para-1) which means ‘thoughtful’. (vii) Find a word from the passage (para-2) which means ‘sweet-smelling’. ## Unseen Passage For Class 12 Factual With Answers 2020 This grammar section explains English Grammar in a clear and simple way. There are example sentences to show how the language is used. NCERT Solutions for Class 12 English will help you to write better answers in your Class 12 exams. Because the Solutions are solved by subject matter experts. https://ncertmcq.com/unseen-passage-for-class-12-factual/ ## Unseen Passage For Class 12 Factual With Answers Pdf 2020 Factual Passage For Class 12 English Comprehension Passages with Questions and Answers for Grade 12 ♦ Solved Passages: I. Read the poem and answer the questions. The Sluggard – Isaac Watts ‘Tis the voice of the sluggard; I heard him complain, “You have waked me too soon, I must slumber again.” As the door on its hinges, so he on his bed, Turns his sides and his shoulders and his heavy head. “A little more sleep, and a little more slumber;” Thus he wastes half his days, and his hours without number, And when he gets up, he sits folding his hands, Or walks about sauntering, or trifling he stands. I pass’d by his garden, and saw the wild brier, The thorn and the thistle grow broader and higher; The clothes that hang on him are turning to rags; And his money still wastes till he starves or he begs. I made him a visit, still hoping to find That he took better care for improving his mind: He told me his dreams, talked of eating and drinking; But scarce reads his Bible, and never loves thinking. Said I then to my heart, “Here’s a lesson for me,” This man’s but a picture of what I might be: But thanks to my friends for their care in my breeding, Who taught me betimes to love working and reading. Unseen Passage For Class 12 With Mcq Questions And Answers Choose the correct option. (a) The word ……………………., in stanza l, means the same as the word ‘sleep’. i. sluggard ii. slumber iii. heavy head Answer: ii. slumber (b) The word ……………………. rhymes with the word ‘higher’. i. brier ii. ‘heart iii. none of the above Answer: i. brier (c) The word ……………………. is an example of an archaic usage. i. thistle ii. breeding iii. betimes Answer: iii. betimes Unseen Passage With Multiple Choice Questions For Class 12 (d) The word ‘sauntering’ means the same as ……………………. i. walking in a slow relaxed way ii. running very fast iii. none of the above Answer: i. walking in a slow relaxed way On the basis of your reading of the poem answer these questions. 1. What does the sluggard protest? 2. What does the simile in stanza one imply? 3. What does the sluggard long for? 4. What does the sluggard do in his waking hours? 5. What kind of a housekeeper is the sluggard? Give evidence. 6. Why did the poet visit him? What was the poet’s reaction? Answer: 1. The Sluggard protested against being woken up from sleep too early. He wanted to sleep some more. 2. The simile implies that the sluggard is never far from his bed and his relationship with his bed is like that of the door with the hinges. 3. The sluggard longed for some more hours of sleep. 4. In his waking hours, the sluggard sat around idly, and loitered around purposelessly. 5. The sluggard was not a meticulous housekeeper as his garden was overgrown with wild briar. The thorns and the thistles in his lawn had grown tall and thick with neglect. 6. The poet visited the sluggard hoping that he indulged in some intellectual activity although he was physically idle. The poet was however disappointed to find that he dreamt only about eating and drinking. The sluggard seldom read the Bible and was not fond of thinking. Factual Passage Class 12 Find words or phrases in the poem which mean the same as the following. 1. countless (stanza 2) 2. rarely (stanza 4) Answer: 1. without number 2. scarce Unseen Passage With Mcq For Class 12 II. Read the following passage carefully. (12 marks) 1. Maharana Pratap ruled over Mewar only for 25 years. However, he accomplished so much grandeur during his reign that his glory surpassed the boundaries of countries and time turning him into an immortal personality. He, along with his kingdom, became a synonym for valour, sacrifice and patriotism. Mewar had been a leading Rajput kingdom even before Maharana Pratap occupied the throne. Kings of Mewar, with the cooperation of their nobles and subjects, had established such traditions in the kingdom, as augmented their magnificence, despite the hurdles of having a smaller area under their command and less population. There did come a few thorny occasions when the flag of the kingdom seemed sliding down. Their flag once again heaved high in the sky, thanks to the gallantry and brilliance of the people of Mewar. 2. The destiny of Mewar was good in the sense that barring a few kings, most of the rulers were competent and patriotic. This glorious tradition of the kingdom almost continued for 1,500 years since its establishment, right from the reign of Bappa Rawal. In fact, only 60 years before Maharana Pratap, Rana Sanga drove the kingdom to the pinnacle of fame. His reputation went beyond Rajasthan and reached Delhi. Two generations before him, Rana Kumbha had given a new stature to the kingdom through victories and developmental work. During his reign, literature and art also progressed extraordinarily. Rana himself was inclined towards writing and his works are read with reverence, even today. The ambience of his kingdom was conducive to the creation of high quality work of art and literature. These accomplishments were the outcome of a longstanding tradition, sustained by several generations. 3. The life of the people of Mewar must have been peaceful and prosperous during the long span of time; otherwise such extraordinary accomplishment in these fields would not have been possible. This is reflected in their art and literature as well as their loving nature. They compensate for lack of admirable physique by their firm but pleasant nature. The ambience of Mewar remains lovely, thanks to the cheerful and liberal character of its people. 4. One may observe astonishing pieces of workmanship, not only in the forts and palaces of Mewar but also in public utility buildings. Ruins of many structures which are still standing tall in their grandeur are testimony to the fact that Mewar was not only the land of the brave but also a seat of art and culture. Amidst aggression and bloodshed, literature and art flourished and creative pursuits of literature and artists did not suffer. Imagine, how glorious the period must have been when the Vijaya Stambha, which is the sample of our great ancient architecture even today, was constructed. In the same fort, Kirti Stambha is standing high, reflecting how liberal the then administration was, which allowed people from other communities and kingdoms to come and carry out construction work. It is useless to indulge in the debate, whether the Vijaya Stambha was constructed first or the Kirti Stambha. The fact is that both the capitals are standing side-by-side and reveal the proximity between the king and the subjects of Mewar. 5. The cycle of time does not remain the same. Whereas, the reign of Rana Sanga was crucial in raising the kingdom to the acme of glory; it also proved to be his nemesis. History took a turn. The fortune of Mewar, the land of the brave, started waning. Rana tried to save the day with his acumen which was running against the stream and the glorious traditions for sometime. [CBSE Sample Paper 2016] A. On the basis of your understanding of the passage, answer the following questions by choosing the most appropriate option. (1 × 5 = 5 marks) Factual Comprehension Passages With Questions And Answers Question (i) How did Maharana Pratap turn into an immortal personality? (a) He ruled Mewar for 25 years (b) He added a lot of grandeur to Mewar (c) Of his valour, sacrifice and patriotism (d) Both (b) and (c) Answer: (d) Both (b) and (c) Question (ii) What were the difficulties in the way of Mewar? (a) Lack of cooperation of the nobility (b) Ancient traditions of the kingdom (c) Its small area and small population (d) The poverty of the subjects Answer: (c) Its small area and small population Question (iii) What was the thorny occasion? (a) When the flag of Mewar seemed to be lowered (b) When the flag of Mewar was hoisted high (c) When the people of Mewar showed gallantry (d) Both (a) and (c) Answer: (d) Both (a) and (c) Question (iv) Why was Mewar lucky? (a) Because all of its rulers were competent (b) Because most of its people were competent (c) Because most of its rulers were incompetent (d) Because only a few of its people were competent Answer: (b) Because most of its people were competent Question (v) Which is the sample of our great ancient architecture even today? (a) Palace of Mewar (b) Port of Mewar (c) Vijaya Stambha (d) Kirti Stambha Answer: (c) Vijaya Stambha B. Answer the following questions briefly. (1 × 7 = 7 marks) Question (i) Who was the earliest King of Mewar? Answer: The earliest king of Mewar mentioned in the passage is Bappa Rawal. Question (ii) What was Rana Kumbha’s contribution to the glory of Mewar? Answer: Rana Kumbha gave new stature through victories and development work. The literature and art progressed. His writing is revered even today. Question (iii) What does the writer find worth admiration in the people of Mewar? Answer: According to the writer, the people of Mewar are of a pleasant nature and liberal character. They are cheerful, gallant and brilliant. Question (iv) How did art and literature flourish in Mewar? Answer: As there was peace and prosperity in Mewar over a long period of time, so the rulers had a liberal attitude. They were also more inclined towards art and literature. Question (v) How did the rulers show that they cared for their subjects? Answer: The rulers cared a lot for their subjects. The nobles cooperated with the subjects. They built public utility buildings. People lived peacefully and had prosperous lives. They built the Vijaya Stambha and Kirti Stambha. Question (vi) Find a word from the passage (para-5) which means ‘the most perfect thing that can exist or be achieved’. Answer: acme Question (vii) Find a word from the passage (para-5) which means ‘becoming weaker in strength’. Answer: waning III. Read the following passage carefully. (12 marks) 1. South India is known for its music and for its arts and rich literature. Madras or Chennai can be called the cultural capital and the soul of Mother India. The city is built low in pleasant contrast to the ghoulish tall structures of Mumbai and Kolkata. It has vast open spaces and ample greenery. The majestic spacious Mount Road looks like a river, wide and deep. A stroll on the Marina beach in the evening with the sea glistening in your face is refreshing. The breeze soothes the body, it refreshes the mind, sharpens the tongue and brightens the intellect. 2. One can never feel dull in Chennai. The intellectual and cultural life of the city is something of a marvel. Every street corner of Chennai has a literary forum, a debating society and music, dance and dramatic club. The intelligent arguments, the sparkling wit and dashing irony enliven both the political and the literary meetings. There is a young men’s association which attracts brilliant speakers and equally brilliant listeners to its meetings. It is a treat to watch the speakers use their oratorical weapons. Chennai speakers are by and large sweet and urbane, though the cantankerous, fire-eating variety is quite often witnessed in political campaigning. The urbane speakers weave their arguments slowly like the unfolding of a leisurely Carnatic raga. 3. Music concerts and dance performances draw packed houses. There is hardly any cultural family in Chennai that does not learn and patronise music and dance in its pristine purity. Rukmani Devi Arundale’s ‘Kalakshetra’ is a renowned international centre. It has turned out hundreds of celebrated maestros and dancers who have brought name and glory to our country. Carnatic music has a peculiar charm of its own. It has the moon’s soft beauty and moon’s soft pace. Thousands of people flock to the temple ‘maidans’ to get drunk with the mellifluous melodies of their favourite singers. They sit out all night in the grueling heat, swaying to the rhythm of ‘nadaswaram’ and rollicking with the measured beats of ‘mridangam’. M.S. Subbulakshmi is considered to be the nightingale of the South. 4. The Gods might descend from heaven to see a South Indian damsel dancing. There are several varieties of South Indian dance – Bharatnatyam, Mohiniyattam, Kuchipudi, Kathakali, etc. Age cannot wither nor custom stale its beautiful variety. Bharatnatyam is the most graceful and enchanting dance form, whereas Kathakali is most masculine and virile. South Indian dances combine voluptuousness with purity. Here, every muscle and fibre of the body vibrates into life, and as the tempo increases, a divine flame-like passion bodies forth as if making an assault on heaven. 5. South Indian dress, particularly of the males, is puritanically simple. There you cannot distinguish a judge from an ‘ardali’ by their dress. South Indian ladies too look charming and graceful in their colourful Kanjeevaram and Mysore silk sarees. 6. South Indian cuisine, especially ‘dosa’, ‘idli’ and ‘vada’ are so delicious that now we can enjoy them almost everywhere in India as well as in some foreign countries. The Madras ‘idli’, which was a favourite of Gandhiji, is served with ‘sambhar’ and ‘coconut chutney’. [CBSE Sample Paper 2015, (AI) 2015] A. On the basis of your understanding of the passage, answer the following questions by choosing the most appropriate option. (1 x 5 = 5 marks) Question (i) For what is South India mainly known? (a) For tasty food (b) For its traditional, music, art, literature (c) For scenic beauty (d) For its delicate and precise ways Answer: (b) For its traditional, music, art, literature Question (ii) Why is it a treat to watch the speakers? (a) Because they use oratorical weapons (b) Because they are witnessed in campaigning (c) Because they weave their arguments fastly (d) Because they argue and complain a lot. Answer: (a) Because they use oratorical weapons Question (iii) What is M.S. Subbulakshmi considered to be? (a) Graceful and enchanting (b) Masculine and virile (c) Nightingale of the South (d) Moon’s soft beauty Answer: (c) Nightingale of the South Question (iv) Which is the South Indian dance form? (a) Bharatnatyam (b) Kuchipudi (c) Kathakali (d) All of these Answer: (d) All of these Question (v) Why are South Indian dances special? (a) Because Gods come from heaven to see them (b) Because there aren’t many varieties of dance (c) Because they are pure as well as sensuous (d) Because they make an assault on heaven Answer: (c) Because they are pure as well as sensuous B. Answer the following questions briefly. (1 × 7 = 7 marks) Question (i) How does the breeze on Marina Beach affect the author? Answer: The breeze soothes the body, refreshes the mind, sharpens the tongue and brightens the intellect. Question (ii) How do we know that music is very important for the people of South India? Answer: Music concerts draw packed houses. Thousands of people flock to the temple ‘maidans’ and sit through the gruelling heat of the night to enjoy the music of their favourite singers. Question (iii) What is the common connection between language, music and dance of South India? Answer: The common connection between language, music and dance of South India is their pure, divine and enchanting nature. Question (iv) What makes Carnatic music charming? Answer: Music of Karnataka is charming because of its soft beauty and pace. Question (v) What is Kalakshetra renowned for? Answer: Kalakshetra is an international centre which has produced hundreds of celebrated maestros and dancers. Question (vi) Find a word from the passage (para-2) which means ‘confident, comfortable and polite in social situations’. Answer: urbane Question (vii) Find a word from the passage (para-3) which means ‘having a pleasant and flowing sound’. Answer: mellifluous IV. Read the following passage Carefully. 1. Smoking is the major cause of mortality with bronchogenic carcinoma of the lung and is one of the factors causing death due to malignancies of larynx, oral cavity, oesophagus, bladder, kidney, pancreas, stomach and uterine cervix and coronary heart diseases. 2. Nicotine is the major substance present in the smoke that causes physical dependence. The additives do produce damage to the body. For example, ammonia can result in a 100-fold increase in the ability of nicotine to enter into the smoke. 3. Levulinic acid, added to cigarettes to mask the harsh taste of the nicotine, can increase the binding of nicotine to brain receptors, which increases the ‘kick’ of nicotine. 4. Smoke from the burning end of a cigarette contains over 4,000 chemicals and 40 carcinogens. It has long been known that tobacco smoke is carcinogenic or cancer-causing. 5. The lungs of smokers collect an annual deposit of l-l’A pounds of the gooey black material. Invisible gas phase of cigarette smoke contains nitrogen, oxygen and toxic gases like carbon monoxide, formaldehyde, acrolein, hydrogen-cyanide and nitrogen-oxides. These gases are poisonous and in many cases, interfere with the body’s ability to transport oxygen. 6. Like many carcinogenic compounds, they can act as tumour promoters or tumour initiators by acting directly on the genetic makeup of cells of the body leading to the development of cancer. 7. While smoking, within the first 8-10 seconds, nicotine is absorbed through the lungs and quickly ‘moved’ into the bloodstream and circulated throughout the brain. Nicotine can also enter the bloodstream through the mucous membranes that line the mouth (if tobacco is chewed) or nose (if snuff is used) and even through the skin. Our brain is made of billions of nerve cells and they communicate with each other by chemical messengers called neurotransmitters. 8. Nicotine is one of the most powerful nerve poisons and binds stereo-selectively to nicotinic receptors which is located in the brain, autonomic ganglia, the medulla, neuromuscular junctions. It is located throughout the brain and plays a critical role in cognitive processes and memory. 9. The nicotine molecule is shaped like a neurotransmitter called acetylcholine, which is involved in many functions including muscle movement, breathing, heart-rate, learning and memory. Nicotine, because of the similar structure with acetylcholine, when it gets into the brain, attaches itself to acetylcholine sites and produces toxic effect. 10. In high concentrations, nicotine is more deadly. In fact, one drop of purified nicotine on the tongue can kill a person. It has been used as a pesticide for centuries. 11. Recent research studies suggest that acute nicotine administration would result in increased dopamine release from the brain, producing perceptions of pleasure and happiness, increased energy and motivation, increased alertness, increased feeling of vigour during the early phase of smoking. 12. However, notwithstanding these superficial effects, research shows that the relationship between smoking and memory loss is strongest in people who smoke more than 29 cigarettes each day and this is not specific to the socio-economic status, gender and a range of associated medical conditions. Smoking may speed up age-related memory loss and the details are not yet clear. Some studies suggest that repeated exposure to high nicotinic smoke related to the ‘Brain-wiring’ is nothing but neuro-biochemistry that deals with complex interaction among genetic experience and biochemistry of brain cells. 13. ‘NO’ is a unique molecule which plays an important role in a number of beneficial and some of the harmful brain and body mechanisms, for example, synapse formation, drug tolerance and local regulation of cerebral blood flow, Parkinson’s disease, etc. It is also found that people who smoke more cigarettes a day have poorer memories in middle age than non-smokers. 14. Some experts say that smoking is linked to memory problems because it contributes to narrowed arteries that restrict blood-flow to the brain. One of the causes of memory decline in relation to the brain function could be the nerve cell death or decreased density of interconnected neuronal network due to the loss of dendrites, the tiny filaments which connect one nerve cell to another. Abstinence from smoking is essential, not only to avoid these systemic effects but also to reduce the ill-effects on the environment. [CBSE Sample Paper 2017] A. On the basis of your understanding of the passage, answer the following questions by choosing the most appropriate option. (1 × 5 = 5 marks) (i) What does the presence of nicotine in the smoke cause? (a) Physical dependence (b) Heart disease (c) Kidney stone (d) Tumour Answer: (a) Physical dependence Question (ii) What does the gas of cigarette smoke contain? (a) Nitrogen (b) Oxygen (c) Carbon-monoxide (d) All of these Answer: (d) All of these Question (iii) What does the poisonous gas of a cigarette do to our body? (a) Act as tumour promoters (b) Interfere with the body’s ability to transport oxygen (c) Malignancies of the larynx (d) None of these Answer: (b) Interfere with the body’s ability to transport oxygen Question (iv) What would result in the acute nicotine administration? (a) Increased dopamine release from the brain (b) Producing perceptions of pleasures and happiness (c) Increased energy and motivated (d) All of these Answer: (d) All of these Question (v) What has been used as a pesticide for centuries? (a) Nicotine (b) Nitrogen (c) Acrolein (d) Formaldehyde Answer: (a) Nicotine B. Answer the following questions briefly. (1 × 7 = 7 marks) Question (i) How is smoking the major cause of mortality? Answer: Smoking is the major cause of mortality as it causes lung cancer, tumours in the larynx, mouth, kidney, pancreas, stomach, and uterine cervix. It also leads to the blockage of arteries causing heart diseases. Question (ii) What makes people addicted to cigarettes? Answer: Nicotine in a cigarette makes the people addicted to it and also causes physical dependence. Question (iii) What are neurotransmitters? Answer: Neurotransmitters are chemical messengers. They help millions of nerve cells to communicate with each other. Question (iv) How does nicotine produce toxic effects? Answer: Nicotine produces toxic effects. It gets into the brain and attaches itself to acetylcholine sites. Their union causes toxic effects. Question (v) According to the experts, how is smoking linked to memory? Answer: Experts say that smoking is linked to memory as it narrows arteries. It restricts the free flow of blood to the brain. It causes the death of nerve cells or the decline of brain memory. Question (vi) Find a word from the passage (para-1) which means ‘a number of deaths’. Answer: mortality Question (vii) Find a word from the passage (para-4) which means ‘the act of not doing something’. Answer: abstinence V. Read the following carefully. 1. Early automobiles were sometimes only ‘horseless carriages’ powered by gasoline or steam engines. Some of them were so noisy that cities often made laws forbidding their use because they frightened horses. 2. Many countries helped to develop the automobile. The internal combustion engine, invented in Austria and France was an early leader in automobile manufacturing. But it was in the United States after 1900 that the automobile was improved most rapidly. As a large and growing country, the United States needed cars and trucks to provide transportation in places not served by trains. 3. Two brilliant ideas made possible the mass production of automobiles. An American inventor named Eli Whitney thought of one of them, which is known as ‘standardisation of parts’. In an effort to speed up production in his gun factory, Whitney decided that each part of a gun could be made by machines, so that it would be exactly like all the others of its kind. 4. Another American, Henry Ford developed the idea of the assembly line. Before Ford introduced the assembly line, each car was built by hand. Such a process was, of course, very slow. As a result, automobiles were so expensive that only rich people could afford them. Ford proposed a system in which each worker would have only a portion of the wheels. Another would place the wheels on the car. And still, another would insert the bolts that held the wheels to the car. Each worker needed to learn only one or two routine tasks. 5. But the really important part of Ford’s idea was to bring the work to the worker. An automobile frame which looks like a steel skeleton was put on a moving platform. As the frame moved past the workers, each worker could attach a single part. When the car reached the end of the line, it was completely assembled. Oil, gasoline, and water were added and the car was ready to be driven away. With the increased production made possible by the assembly line, automobiles became much economical and, more and more people were able to afford them. 6. Today, it can be said that wheels run America. The four rubber tyres of the automobile move America through work and play. 7. Even though the majority of Americans would find it hard to imagine what life could be without a car, some have begun to realise that the automobile is a mixed blessing. Traffic accidents are increasing steadily and large cities are plagued by traffic congestion. Worst of all, perhaps, is the air pollution caused by the internal combustion engine. Every car engine burns hundreds of gallons of fuel each year and pumps hundreds of pounds of carbon monoxide and other gases into the air. These gases are one source of the smog that hangs over large cities. Some of these gases are poisonous and dangerous to health, especially for someone with a weak heart or respiratory disease. 8. One answer to the problem of air pollution is to build a car that does not pollute. That’s what several major automobile manufacturers are trying to do. But building a clean car is easier said than done. So far, progress has been slow. Another solution is to eliminate car fumes altogether by getting rid of the internal combustion engine. Inventors are now working on turbine-powered cars, as well as on cars powered by steam and electricity. But most of us won’t be driving cars run on batteries or boiling water for a while yet. Many automakers believe that it will take years to develop practical models that are powered by electricity or steam. 9. To rid the world of pollution-pollution is caused not just by cars, but by all of the modern industrial life-many people believe that we must make some fundamental changes in the way many of us live. Americans may, for example, have to cut down on the number of privately owned cars and depend more on public mass transit systems. Certainly, the extensive use of new transit systems could cut down on traffic congestion and air pollution. But these changes, sometimes clash head-on with other urgent problems. For example, if a factory closes down because it cannot meet government pollution standards, a large number of workers suddenly find themselves without jobs. Questioning the quality of the air they breathe becomes less important than worrying about the next paycheque. Drastic action must be taken, if we are to reduce traffic accidents, traffic congestion and air pollution. While wheels have brought better and more convenient transportation, they have also brought new and unforeseen problems. Progress, it turns out, has more than one face. [CBSE Delhi, (AI) 2016] A. On the basis of your understanding of the passage, answer the following questions by choosing the most appropriate option. (1 × 5 = 5 marks) Question (i) What did the United States need for transportation in places that were not served by trains? (a) They needed trains (b) They needed fuel (c) They needed cars and trucks (d) All of the above Answer: (c) They needed cars and trucks Question (ii) What did Henry Ford develop? (a) The idea of the assembly line (b) Horseless carriages (c) Automobile frame (d) Wheels for the car Answer: (a) The idea of the assembly line Question (iii) What was the impact of the increased production made by the assembly line? (a) Automobiles became much economical (b) More people were able to afford them (c) Traffic accidents increased (d) Both (a) and (c) Answer: (d) Both (a) and (c) Question (iv) What is the one solution to the problem of air pollution? (a) To burn hundreds of gallons of fuel each year (b) To build a car that does not pollute (c) To increase the production of cars (d) To provide transportation in all the places Answer: (b) To build a car that does not pollute Question (v) What has brought better and more convenient transportation? (a) Engines (b) Public mass transport systems (c) Wheels (d) None of these Answer: (a) Engines B. Answer the following questions briefly. (1 × 7 = 7 marks) Question (i) How does standardisation of parts help to make mass production possible? Answer: Standardisation of parts leads to mass production. Each part of a gun could be made by machines so that it would be exactly like all the others of its kind. Question (ii) How does the assembly line help to make mass production possible? Answer: Ford introduced the assembly line in which each worker has to make only a portion. One would make a part of the wheel, another would place it on the car and the third would insert the bolts. This brought a revolution in mass production which was very slow before the assembly line. Question (iii) Why do some Americans call the automobile a mixed blessing? Write any two points. Answer: The Americans call the automobile a mixed blessing. The automobile has led to cause a large number of traffic accidents and also a lot of traffic congestion. The second problem is the problem of pollution of air caused by toxic gases like carbon monoxide. Question (iv) What suggestions are offered in the passage for getting rid of pollution? Answer: There are two suggestions given in the passage, first that the Americans will have to cut down the number of privately owned cars and depend on mass transit systems. The second suggestion is the use of non-conventional fuel like steam or electricity in place of petrol. Question (v) What do many automakers believe? Answer: Many automakers believe that it will take years to develop practical models that are powered by electricity or steam. Question (vi) Find a word from the passage (para-2) which means ‘fastly or suddenly’. Answer: rapidly Question (vii) Find a word from the passage (para-8) which means ‘to remove or take away’. Answer: eliminate ♦Unsolved Passages: I. Read the following passage carefully. (12 marks) 1. Swachh Bharat Mission is a massive mass movement that seeks to create a clean India by 2019. The father of our nation, Mahatma Gandhi, always puts emphasis on cleanliness as cleanliness leads to a healthy and prosperous life. Keeping this in mind, the Indian government launched the Swachh Bharat Mission on October 2, 2014. The mission will cover all rural and urban areas. The urban component of the mission was implemented by the Ministry of Urban Development, and the rural component by the Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation. 2. The mission aims to cover 1.04 crore households, provides 2.5 lakh community toilets, 2.6 lakh public toilets, and a solid waste management facility in each town. Under the programme, community toilets will be built in residential areas where it is difficult to construct individual household toilets. Public toilets will also be constructed in designated locations, such as tourist places, markets, bus stations, railway stations, etc. The programme will be implemented over a five-year period in 4,401 towns. Of the 62,009 crores likely to be spent on the programme, the Centre will pitch in 14,623 crores. Of the Centre’s share of? 14,623 crore, 7,366 crores will be spent on solid waste management, 4,165 crores on individual household toilets, ? 1,828 crore on public awareness and 655 crores on community toilets. 3. The programme includes the elimination of open defecation, conversion of unsanitary toilets to pour flush toilets, eradication of manual scavenging, municipal solid waste management, and bringing about a behavioural change in people regarding healthy sanitation practices. 4. The Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan has been restructured into the Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin). The mission aims to make India an open defecation-free country in five years. Under the mission, a huge amount will be spent for the construction of about 11 crores 11 lakh toilets in the country. Technology will be used on a large scale to convert waste into wealth in rural India, in the form of bio-fertilizer and different forms of energy. The mission is to be executed on a war footing with the involvement of every gram panchayat, panchayat Samiti and Zila Parishad in the country, besides roping in large sections of the rural population and school teachers and students in this endeavour. 5. As part of the mission, for rural households, the provision for a unit cost of individual household toilets has been increased from 10,000 to 12,000 so as to provide for water availability, including for storing, hand-washing, and cleaning of toilets. The central share for such toilets will be 9,000, while the state share will be 3,000. For North-Eastern states, Jammu & Kashmir, and special category states, the Central share will be 10,800 and the state share will be 1,200. Additional contributions from other sources will be permitted. 6. A ‘Swachh Bharat Run’ was organised at the Rashtrapati Bhavan on October 2, 2014. According to a statement from the Rashtrapati Bhavan, around 1,500 people participated and the event was flagged off by President Pranab Mukherjee. Participants in the run included officers and staff of the Secretariat, the President’s Bodyguard, Army Guard, and Delhi Police as well as their families. NIT Rourkela Ph.D. students have made a short film on Swachh Bharat which conveyed the message that Swachh Bharat is not a one-day event. It should be part of our life, only then we can achieve our goal of Swachh Bharat (Clean India). 7. The Swachh Bharat Kosh (SBK) has been set up to facilitate and channelise individual philanthropic contributions and Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) funds to achieve the objective of Clean India (Swachh Bharat) by the year 2019. The Kosh will be used to achieve the objective of improving cleanliness levels in the rural and urban areas, including the schools. The allocation from the Kosh will be used to supplement and complement departmental resources for such activities. To incentivise contributions from individuals and corporate, modalities are being considered to provide tax rebates, wherever possible. A. On the basis of your understanding of the passage, answer the following questions by choosing the most appropriate option. (1 × 5 = 5 marks) (i) When was the Swachh Bharat Mission implemented? (a) October 2 (b) October 30 (c) November 14 (d) December 2 (ii) By which year does the mission seek to create Clean India? (a) 2015 (b) 2017 (c) 2019 (d) 2016 (iii) By whom was the rural component of the mission implemented? (a) Ministry of Urban Development (b) Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation (c) Ministry of Rural Development (d) Ministry of Cleanliness and Sanitation (iv) Where was the ‘Swachh Bharat Run’ organised? (a) Rashtrapati Bhavan (b) India Gate (c) Jammu and Kashmir (d) Rural India (v) What has been restructured into the Swachh Bharat Mission? (a) Nirmal Abhiyan (b) Nirmal Mission (c) Nirmal Bharat Mission (d) Bharat Bachao Mission B. Answer the following questions briefly. (1 × 7 = 7 marks) (i) When was Swachh Bharat Abhiyan launched? What idea led to its launch? (ii) What are the aims of the Swachh Bharat mission? (iii) What is the aim of Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan? (iv) Why was the ‘Swachh Bharat Run’ organised? Who participated in the event? (v) What is the purpose of Swachh Bharat Kosh? (vi) Find a word from the passage (para-3) which means ‘to get rid of something completely’. (vii) Find a word from the passage (para-7) which means ‘helping poor people by giving them money’. II. Read the following passage carefully. (12 marks) 1. The Ig Nobel Prizes are a parody of the Nobel Prizes. They are given each year in early October for ten unusual or trivial achievements in scientific research. The stated aim of the prizes is to “honour achievements that first make people laugh, and then make them think.” The awards are sometimes veiled criticism (or gentle satire), but are also used to point out that even the most absurd-sounding avenues of research can yield useful knowledge. Organised by the scientific humour magazine ‘Annals of Improbable Research’ (AIR), they are presented by a group that includes Nobel laureates at a ceremony at Harvard University’s Sanders Theatre. They are followed by a set of public lectures by the winners at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 2. The first Ig Nobels were created in 1991 by Marc Abrahams, editor and co-founder of the Annals of Improbable Research. He is the master of ceremonies at all subsequent awards ceremonies. Awards were presented at that time for discoveries “that cannot, or should not be reproduced”. Ten prizes are awarded each year in many categories, including the Nobel Prize categories of Physics, Chemistry, Physiology/Medicine, Literature, and Peace, but also other categories such as public health, engineering, biology, and interdisciplinary research. The Ig Nobel Prizes recognise genuine achievements, with an exception of three prizes awarded in the first year to fictitious scientists Josiah Carberry, Paul DeFanti, and Thomas Kyle. 3. The awards are sometimes veiled criticism (or gentle satire), as in the two awards given for homeopathy research, prizes in “science education” to the Kansas and Colorado state boards of education for their stance regarding the teaching of evolution, and the prize awarded to Social Text after the Sokal Affair. Most often, however, they draw attention to scientific articles that have some humorous or unexpected aspect. Examples range from the statement that black holes fulfil all the technical requirements to be the location of hell, to research on the “five-second rule”, a tongue-in-cheek belief that food dropped on the floor will not become contaminated if it is picked up within five seconds. In 2010, Sir Andre Geim became the first person to receive both a Nobel Prize and an individual Ig Nobel Prize. 4. The prizes are presented by genuine Nobel laureates, originally at a ceremony in a lecture hall at MIT, but now in Sanders Theatre at Harvard University. It contains a number of running jokes, including Miss Sweetie Poo, a little girl who repeatedly cries out, “Please stop, I’m bored,” in a high-pitched voice if speakers go on too long. The awards ceremony is traditionally closed with the words: “If you didn’t win a prize and especially if you did better luck next year!” The ceremony is co-sponsored by the Harvard Computer Society, the Harvard-Radcliffe Science Fiction Association, and the Harvard-Radcliffe Society of Physics Students. 5. Throwing paper airplanes onto the stage is a long-standing tradition at the Ig Nobels. In past years, Physics professor, Roy Glauber swept the stage clean of the airplanes as the official “Keeper of the Broom” for years. Glauber could not attend the 2005 awards because he was travelling to Stockholm to claim a genuine Nobel Prize in Physics. Delegates from the Museum of Bad Art are often on hand to display some pieces from their collection too. 6. The ceremony is recorded and broadcasted on National Public Radio and is shown live over the internet. The recording is broadcasted every year, on the Friday after U.S. Thanksgiving, on the public radio program Science Friday. In recognition of this, the audience chants the first name of the radio show’s host, Ira Flatow. A. On the basis of your understanding of the passage, answer the following questions by choosing the most appropriate option. (1 × 5 = 5 marks) (i) How many Ig Nobel Prizes are given each year? (a) 3 (b) 4 (c) 7 (d) 10 (ii) Who created the first Ig Nobel Prize? (a) Thomas Kyle (b) Marc Abrahams (c) Josiah Carberry (d) Paul DeFanti (iii) In which year were fictitious scientists awarded Ig Nobel Prize? (a) 1990 (b) 1991 (c) 1992 (d) 1995 (iv) What is a long-standing tradition at the Ig Nobels? (a) Throwing paper airplanes onto the stage (b) Throwing tomatoes onto the stage (c) Leaving the winners’ handprints on the stage (d) Winners sweeping the stage (v) Where is the ceremony recorded and broadcasted? (a) Harvard Computer Society (b) Kansas (c) National Public Radio (d) Colorado B. Answer the following questions briefly. (i) Why are Ig Nobel Prizes termed as a parody of the Nobel Prizes? (ii) Who organises the Ig Nobel Prizes? (iii) Who was the first person to receive both, a Nobel Prize and an individual Ig Nobel Prize? (iv) What is the criteria for awarding Ig Nobel Prize? (v) What is the Miss Sweetie Poo joke? When is it cracked? (vi) Find a word from the passage (para-1) which means ‘an imitation of the style of something or someone’. (vii) Find a word from the passage (para-3) which means ‘a gradual process of change and development’. III. Read the following passage carefully. (12 marks) 1. Almost 3,000 years of food evolution has taken place for the pizza pie to reach its current delicious state today. Although flat breads have been around for 6,000 years, the word, “pizziare” started appearing in Italian writings as far back as 1000 B.C. The word pizza itself is believed to have originated from an Old Italian word meaning ‘a point’, which in turn became the Italian word “pizziare”, which means to pinch, or to pluck. 2. Tomatoes were first introduced to Italy from South America in 1522. At first, the tomato was believed to be poisonous. Fortunately, the poorer peasants of the region finally overcame their doubts about tomatoes in the 17th century and began adding it to the bread dough, and the first pizzas were created. 3. Before the tomato arrived in the 1500s, the first pizzas in Naples were white, made with garlic, olive oil, salt, anchovies, and probably lard. Neapolitans were the first in Europe to embrace the tomato, since it was deemed poisonous in Europe as a member of the nightshade family. With the rise in popularity of tomato, people started using it more and more. Mozzarella cheese was also slowly gaining ground. Mozzarella had become available in Italy only after water buffalo were imported from India in the 7th century (mozzarella was first made with water buffalo milk). Its popularity grew very slowly until the last half of the 18th century. In fact, cheese and tomatoes did not meet on a pizza until 1889. 4. The most commonly considered pizza (tomato, mozzarella, basil) was supposedly created on June 11, 1889 by a pizza-maker named Raffaele Esposito. This Pizzaiolo (pizza-maker in Italian and spelled Pizzaiuolo in Neapolitan) created a special pizza for the visit of Queen Margherita of Savoia. He made three different pizzas, but the Queen fell in love with one in particular, topped with three ingredients representing the three colours of the Italian flag. The Italian flag was represented by the tomatoes (red), mozzarella (white), and basil (green). Esposito named this pizza “Pizza alia Margherita” in honour of the Queen. Whether Esposito was the first to use those ingredients or not, this is known as the classic Neapolitan pizza or the modern-day tomato-and-cheese pizza. 5. In the latter half of the 19th century, pizza migrated to America with the Italians. By the turn of the century, the Italian immigrants had begun to open their own bakeries and were selling groceries as well as pizza. Gennaro Lombardi opened the first true US pizzeria in 1905 at 531/3, Spring Street in New York City, a part of town known as “Little Italy”. 6. In India, of late, pizza has become a popular food. It has become a fashion and also a manner of showing that one is part of the famous Western culture. In fact, it is more of a fashion statement. The popularity of the food is rocketing. This is evident from a report by Fortune magazine. The two giants of the pizza industry, Pizza Hut and Dominos, are in hot competition with each other in India. India has 134 Pizza Huts and 149 Dominos locations, with each chain opening 50 stores a year. 7. The popularity of pizza in India, Fortune claims, is because of its similarity to India’s native cuisine. Unlike Chinese and Japanese, Indians eat leavened bread (roti/naan), and a popular traditional version slathers it in butter and garlic- not unlike garlic bread, the most often ordered side dish at both Dominos and Pizza Hut franchises in India. Cheese (paneer) is ubiquitous in India’s northern cuisine. Tomatoes and all kinds of sauces are prevalent everywhere. Combine these ingredients into one gooey, oily, tasty dish that you can eat with your hands-as Indians traditionally do-and you have a hit. Compare this with other popular food or noodles. Sometimes, it slurps down our forks, and off the plate, and here we land up in a whole lot of mess. Add to this, the embarrassment which would have been caused had the place been a famous restaurant or the boss’s party. The one thing that increases the love for pizza among one and all is that we can all eat it with our hands. 8. Experts estimate that the Indian pizza market will grow at a compound annual rate of 15 percent. As per estimates of the Ministry of Food Processing, the ready-to-eat market in India today exceeds 40 billion (US 800 million), with the size of the heat-and-eat pizza market being 2.5 billion (US \$ 50 million). Most of those sales will come in large metropolises and mini-metros like Pune, Ahmedabad, Bangalore, and Hyderabad.

A. On the basis of your understanding of the passage, answer the following questions by choosing the most appropriate option. (1 × 5 = 5 marks)

(i) What does the word ‘pizza’ mean?
(a) To pinch
(b) To cut
(c) To slice
(d) To encircle

(ii) From where were tomatoes first introduced to Italy?
(a) North America
(b) Europe
(c) South America
(d) China

(iii) Which pizza represented the Italian flag?
(a) Tomato and mozzarella
(b) Mozzarella and basil
(c) Mozzarella, tomato and basil
(d) Mozzarella, tomato and spinach

(iv) Who opened the first true US pizzeria in 1905?
(a) Raffaele Esposito
(b) Gennaro Lombardi
(c) Neapolitans
(d) None of these

(v) Why is pizza popular in India?
(a) Because it has become a fashion
(b) Because it is a part of the famous western culture
(c) Because of its similarity to India’s native cuisine
(d) All of these

B. Answer the following questions briefly. (1 × 7 = 7 marks)

(i) Why was mozzarella not used initially in pizzas? When was it first used?
(ii) Why did Raffaele make a special pizza? How many pizzas did he make?
(iii) When did pizza migrate to America? Who opened ‘Little Italy’ in US?
(iv) According to Fortune, why is pizza becoming popular in India?
(v) According to the author, how does pizza differ from noodles?
(vi) Find a word from the passage (para-3) which means ‘considered’.
(vii) Find a word from the passage (para-7) which means ‘found everywhere’.

IV. Read the following passage carefully. (12 marks)

1. Jane Goodall was born in London, England, on April 3, 1934. On her second birthday, her father gave her a toy chimpanzee named Jubilee. Jubilee was named after a baby chimp in the London Zoo and seemed to foretell the course that Jane’s life would take. To this day, Jubilee sits in a chair in Jane’s London home. From an early age, Jane was fascinated by animals and animal stories. By the age of 10, she was talking about going to Africa to live among the animals there. At that time, in the early 1940s, this was a radical idea because women did not go to Africa by themselves.

2. As a young woman, Jane finished school in London, attended a secretarial school, and then worked as a documentary filmmaker for a while. When a school friend invited her to visit Kenya, she worked as a waitress until she had earned the fare to travel there by boat. She was 23 years old.

3. Once in Kenya, she met Dr. Louis Leakey, a famous paleontologist and anthropologist. He was impressed with her thorough knowledge of Africa and its wildlife and hired her to assist him and his wife on a fossil-hunting expedition to Olduvai Gorge. Dr Leakey soon realised that Jane was the perfect person to complete a study he had been planning for some time. She expressed her interest in the idea of studying animals by living in the wild with them, rather than studying dead animals through paleontology.

4. Dr. Leakey and Jane began planning a study of a group of chimpanzees who were living on the shores of Lake Tanganyika in Kenya. At first, the British authorities would not approve of their plan. At the time, they thought it was too dangerous for a woman to live in the wilds of Africa alone. But Jane’s mother, Vanne agreed to join her, so that she would not be alone. Finally, the authorities gave Jane the clearance she needed in order to go to Africa and begin her study.

5. In July of 1960, Jane and her mother arrived at Gombe National Park then called Tanganyika and now called Tanzania. Jane faced many challenges as she began her work. The chimpanzees did not accept her right away, and it took months for them to get used to her presence in their territory. But she was very patient and remained focussed on her goal. Little by little, she was able to enter their world.

6. At first, she was able to watch the chimpanzees only from a great distance, using binoculars. As time passed, she was able to move her observation point closer to them while still using camouflage. Eventually, she was able to sit among them, touching, patting, and even feeding them. It was an amazing accomplishment for Jane and a breakthrough in the study of animals in the wild. Jane named all of the chimpanzees that she studied, stating in her journals that she felt each had a unique personality.

7. One of the first significant observations that Jane made during the study was that chimpanzees make and use tools, much like humans do, to help them get food. It was previously thought that humans alone used tools. Also thanks to Jane’s research, we now know that chimps eat meat as well as plants and fruits. In many ways, she has helped us to see how chimpanzees and humans are similar. In doing so, she has made us more sympathetic towards these creatures, while helping us to better understand ourselves.

8. The study started by Jane Goodall in 1960 is now the longest field study of any animal species in their natural habitat. Research continues to this day in Gombe and is conducted by a team of trained Tanzanians.

9. Jane’s life has included much more than just her study of the chimps in Tanzania. She pursued a graduate degree while still conducting her study, receiving her Ph.D. from Cambridge University in 1965. In 1984, she received the J. Paul Getty Wildlife Conservation Prize for helping millions of people understand the importance of wildlife conservation to life on this planet. She has been married twice: first to a photographer and then to the director of National Parks. She has one son.

10. Dr. Jane Goodall is now the world’s most renowned authority on chimpanzees, having studied their behaviour for nearly 40 years. She has published many scientific articles. She has written two books and has won numerous awards for her groundbreaking work. The Jane Goodall Institute for Wildlife Research, Education, and Conservation was founded in 1977 in California but moved to the Washington, D.C., area in 1998. Its goal is to take the actions necessary to improve the environment for all living things.

11. Dr. Goodall now travels extensively, giving lectures, visiting zoos and chimp sanctuaries, and talking to young people involved in environmental education. She is truly a great conservationist and an amazing human being.

A. On the basis of your understanding of the passage, answer the following questions by choosing the most appropriate option. (1 × 5 = 5 marks)

(i) What do chimpanzees eat?
(a) Only meat
(b) Only plants
(c) Only fruits
(d) All of these

(ii) Where did Jane and her mother arrive in the July month of 1960?
(a) Africa
(b) Lake Tanganyika
(c) London
(d) Gombe National Park

(iii) What was a breakthrough in the study of animals in the wild?
(a) To watch chimpanzees from a distance
(b) To move the observation point closer
(c) To be able to sit among chimpanzees
(d) None of these

(iv) Why did Jane receive the J. Paul Getty Wildlife Conservation Prize?

(a) For pursuing a graduate degree while still conducting her study
(b) Helping millions of people understand the importance of wildlife conservation
(c) For founding the Jane Goodall Institute for Wildlife Research, Education and Conservation
(d) For travelling extensively, giving lectures, and visiting zoos

(v) Which of the following is not true about chimpanzees?
(a) Chimpanzees are often comfortable with strangers.
(b) Chimpanzees eat meat as well as plants and fruits.
(c) Chimpanzees use tools to help them get food.
(d) Different chimpanzees have different personalities.

B. Answer the following questions briefly. (1 × 7 = 7 marks)

(i) Why did Doctor Leakey choose Jane to work with him?
(iii) How has Jane Goodall’s work helped us understand chimpanzees better?
(iv) What might happen to them in the future due to her work? Use examples from the passage to support your answer.
(v) What is the main goal of Jane Goodall Institute for Wildlife Research, Education and Conservation?
(vi) Find a word from the passage (para-3) which means ‘an organised journey for a particular purpose’.
(vii) Find a word from the passage (para-6) which means ‘an important discovery or event that helps to improve a situation or provide an answer to a problem’.

VI. Read the following passage carefully. (12 marks)

1. Archaeology is the scientific study of the remains of past human culture. Archaeologists investigate the lives of early people by studying the objects that people have left behind. Such objects include buildings, artwork, tools, bones, and pottery. Archaeologists may make exciting discoveries, such as a tomb filled with gold or the ruins of a magnificent temple in the midst of a jungle. However, the discovery of a few stone tools or grains of hardened corn may reveal even more about early people.

2. Archaeological research is the chief means to learn about societies that existed before the invention of writing about 5,000 years ago. It also provides an important supplement to our knowledge of ancient societies that left written records. In America, archaeology is considered a branch of anthropology, the scientific study of humanity and human culture. European archaeologists, however, think of their work as closely related to the field of history. Archaeology differs from history in which historians mainly study the lives of people as recorded in written documents. Archaeologists look for information about how, where, and when cultures developed.

Like other social scientists, they search for reasons why major changes have occurred in certain cultures. Some archaeologists try to understand why ancient people stopped hunting and started farming. Others develop theories about what caused people to build cities and to set up trade routes. In addition, some archaeologists look for reasons behind the fall of such early civilizations like the Mayas in Central America and the Romans in Europe.

3. Archaeologists examine any evidence that can help them explain how people lived in past times. Such evidence ranges from the ruins of a large city to a few stone flakes left by someone making a stone tool long ago.

4. The three basic kinds of archaeological evidence are artefacts, features, and ecofacts. Artifacts are objects that were made by people and can be moved without altering their appearance. Artefacts include objects like arrowheads, pots and beads. Artefacts from a society with a written history may also include clay tablets and other written records. Features consist mainly of houses, tombs, irrigation canals, and other large structures built by ancient people. Unlike artifacts, features cannot be separated from their surroundings without changing their form.

Ecofacts reveal how ancient people responded to their surroundings. Examples of ecofacts include seeds and animal bones. Any place where archaeological evidence is found is called an archaeological site. To understand the behaviour of the people who occupied a site, archaeologists must study the relationship between the artefacts, features, and ecofacts found there. For example, the discovery of stone spearheads near bones of an extinct kind of buffalo at a site in New Mexico showed that early human beings had hunted buffalo in that area.

5. If objects are buried deep in the ground, their position in the earth also concerns archaeologists. The scientists study the layers of soil and rock in which objects are found to understand the conditions that existed when the objects were placed there. In some places, archaeologists find many levels of deposits called strata. The archaeological study of strata, called stratigraphy, developed from the study of rock layers in geology. Archaeologists use special techniques and equipment to gather archaeological evidence precisely and accurately. They also keep detailed records of their findings because much archaeological research destroys the remains being studied. Locating sites is the first job of the archaeologist. Sites may be above found, underground or underwater. Some large sites are located easily because they are clearly visible or can be traced from descriptions in ancient stories or other historical records. Such sites include the pyramids of Egypt and the ancient city of Athens in Greece.

6. Archaeologists use systematic methods of discovering sites. The traditional way to find all the sites in a region is through a foot survey. In this method, archaeologists space themselves at measured distances and walk in pre-set directions. Each person looks for archaeological evidence while walking forward. Scientific methods are used to help discover underground sites. Aerial photography, for example, can reveal variations in vegetation that indicate the presence of archaeological evidence. Archaeologists describe, photograph, and count the objects they find. They group the objects according to type and location. Three steps are followed to interpret the evidence found. They are classification, dating, and evaluation. [CBSE 2019 SET-IT]

A. On the basis of your understanding of the passage, answer the following questions by
choosing the most appropriate option. (1 × 5 = 5 marks)

(i) What are the best sources of finding out archaeological facts?
(a) Artwork, building, bones and pottery
(b) Tombs filled with gold
(c) Grains of hardened corn
(d) Ruins of a magnificent temple

(ii) What are the basic kinds of archaeological evidence?
(a) Artefacts, features and ecofacts
(b) Mayan and Roman civilizations
(c) Cultural developments in written documents

(iii) What is an archaeological site?
(a) Where tombs and buildings exist
(b) Where archaeological evidence is found
(c) Where extinct animal bones are located
(d) Where ancient civilizations perished

(iv) How is archaeology taken in America?
(a) As lives of people as recorded in written documents
(b) As study of humanity and human culture
(c) As closely related to the field of history
(d) As written records of ancient people

(v) Which of the following do archaeologists not study?
(a) Ancient hunting and farming (b) Ancient cities and trade routes
(c) Fall of some civilizations (d) Weather and climate

B. Answer the following questions briefly. (1 × 7 = 7 marks)

(i) What do archaeologists do?
(ii) What is archaeological research?
(iii) What do European archaeologists think of their subject?
(iv) What kinds of evidence are used by archaeologists?
(v) What methods do archaeologists employ to discover archaeological sites?
(vi) Find a word from the passage (para-1) which means ‘thrilling’ or ‘interesting’.
(vii) Find a word from the passage (para-4) which means ‘reacted’.

## CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 History Term 2 Set 10 with Solutions

Students can access the CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 History with Solutions and marking scheme Term 2 Set 10 will help students in understanding the difficulty level of the exam.

## CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 History Term 2 Set 10 with Solutions

Time allowed: 2 Hours
Maximum Marks: 40

General Instructions:

• This Question paper is divided into four sections-Section A, B, C and D.
• All questions are compulsory.
• Section-A: Question no. 1 to 4 are Short Answer type questions of 3 marks each. Answer to each question should not exceed 80 words.
• Section-B: Question no. 5 to 7 are Long Answer type questions, carrying 6 marks. Answer to this question should not exceed 150-200 words.
• Section-C: Question no. 8 and 9 are Case Based questions, carrying 4 marks each with subparts.
• Section-D: Question no. 10 is map based, carrying 2 marks.
• There is no overall choice in the question paper. However, an internal choice has been
provided in a few questions. Only one of the choices in such questions have to be attempted.
• In addition to this, separate instructions are given with each section and question, wherever necessary.

Section – A

Question 1.
The capital of the Mughal empire shifted from one place to another under each monarch. Explain. (3)
Or
Explain the roles of the following officers in the Mughal administration.
(i) Waqia Navis
(ii) Mir Bakshi
(iii) Wakil
(iv) Qarid
(v) Diwan-i ala
The heart of the Mughal empire was its capital city where the court assembled. The capital cities shifted frequently during 16th and 17th centuries. Babur took over the Lodi capital of Agra. In 1560, Akbar constructed a fort in Agra with red sand stone. The shifting of capital started with Akbar.

In 1570, Akbar decided to build a new capital at Fatehpur Sikri. In 1585 the capital was transferred to Lahore to bring the North-West under control and Akbar closely watched the frontier for thirteen years.

Capital was shifted under Shah Jahan again. In 1648 the court, army and household of Shah Jahan moved from Agra to the newly completed imperial capital Shahjahanabad. It was a new addition to the old residential duty in Delhi with the Red Fort, the Jama Masjid, a three line esplanade with Bazaars (Chandni Chowk) and spadous homes for the nobility. His new city was appropriate to a formal vision of grand monarchy.
Or
(i) Waqia Navis They were court writers who rewarded all applications and documents presented to the court and all the imperial orders (farmans).

(ii) Mir Bakshi He was the payment’s general who stood in open court on the right of the emperor and prevented all candidates for appointment or promotion, while his office prepared orders bearing his seal and signature as well as those of the emperor.

(iii) Wakil They were agent of nobles and regional rulers rewarded the entire proceedings of the court under the heading ‘News from Exhalted Court’ (Akhbarat-i- Darbar-i-Maulla) with the date and time of the court session (pahar).

(iv) Qasid They were also called pathmar. They carried paper’s rolled up in bamboo containers. The emperor received reports from even distant provincial capitals within a few days.

(v) Diwan-i ala He was also an important officer of the state. He was the finance minister handling the finances of the state.

Question 2.
Explain the Khilafat Movement. What demands were made by the proponents of the Khilafat Movement? (3)
The Khilafat Movement (1919-1920) was a movement of Indian Muslims, led by Ali brothers Muhammad Ali and Shaukat Ali. It emerged as a result of dismemberment of Turkey by the British. It sought to restore the Caliphate, a symbol of Pan-Islamism which had recently been abolished by the Turkish ruler Kemal Ataturk.

The Congress supported the movement and Mahatma Gandhi sought to combine it to the Non-cooperation Movement. Following demands were made by the proponents of the Khilafat Movement

• The Turkish Sultan or Khalifa must retain control over the Muslim sacred places in the erstwhile Ottoman empire.
• The Jazirat-ul-Arab (Arabia, Syria, Iraq, Palestine) must remain under Muslim sovereignty only.
• The Khalifa must be left with sufficient territory to enable them to defend the Islamic fait

Question 3.
What was Damin-i-koh? How it came into being? (3)
Damin-i-koh was the name given to the forested hilly areas of Rajmahal hills in present day Jharkhand state. This area was demarcated as land of Santhal and they were persuaded to carry out settled agriculture in this area. After carrying out survey and mapping of the area it was declared as Damin – i – koh in 1832.

Britishers created Damin-i-koh to serve their two fold purpose. They were
(i) After introduction of permanent settlement they wanted expansion of agricultural activities which can increase their land revenue collection.

(ii) They also wanted to drove out paharias who were constantly raiding the nearby plain settlements. Thus, demarcation of separate area for Santhal led to the clearing of forest and migration of Santhal from various regions of Eastern Indian to this region.

Question 4.
Give a detailed description on making of Indian Constitution. (3)
Constitution of India was the result of more than 3 years of debate, discussion and deliberation among nationalist leaders and constitutional experts. This culminated into making of lengthiest written constitution of the world.

Following points gives an account of making of Indian Constitution

(i) It was drafted by the Constituent Assembly of India, which was formed under the provisions of Cabinet Mission Plan of May, 1946.

(ii) The members of the assembly were elected through existing provincial legislature for which elections was held in 1946. It also comprised representatives from princely states.

(iii) The Muslim League chose to boycott the Constituent Assembly pressing its demand for Pakistan with a separate Constitution. Hence, 82% of the members of the Constituent Assembly were also the members of the Congress.

(iv) Under the Presidentship of Rajendra Prasad, the assembly created many important committees for focused deliberations on specific features of constitution. Constitutional experts and eminent public figures were also invited in Constitution making process.

(v) Public opinion also influenced the Constitution making process of India. The linguistic minorities demanded protection to their mother tongue while religious minorities also asked for special safeguards.

(vi) Under the Chairmanship of BR Ambedkar, the Drafting Committee studied more than 50 Constitutions of various countries and incorporated several features from these Constitution such as Preamble and Fundamental Rights from Constitution of USA.

(vii) It was ratified by the Constitutional Assembly on 26th November, 1949 and it came into effect from 26th January, 1950.

Section – B

Question 5.
Discuss about the Non-cooperation Movement and also discuss contribution of Non-cooperation Movement to India’s freedom struggle. Why did Gandhiji couple Non-cooperation Movement with Khilafat Movement? (6)
Or
Explain the beginning of the Dandi March. What is its significance in the history of the Indian National Movement?
Non-cooperation Movement : The Non-cooperation Movement was the first mass based political movement under Mahatma Gandhi. Indians who wished colonialism to end were asked to stop attending schools, colleges, law courts and pay no taxes. Indians were asked to adhere to a renunciation of all voluntary associations with the British Government.

In 1920, at the Congress Session at Nagpur, the Non-cooperation programme was adopted.
The movement started with middle class participation in the cities. Thousands of students left government controlled schools, colleges, teachers resigned and lawyers gave up their legal practices. Foreign goods were boycotted, liquor shops picketed and foreign clothes were burnt.

The import of foreign clothes halved between 1921 to 1922. As the movement spread, people began rejecting imported clothes and started wearing only Indian clothes.
Contribution of Non-cooperation in Struggle of Freedom

As a consequence of the Non-cooperation Movement, the British Raj was shaken to its foundations for the first time since the Revolt of 1857. By 1922, Gandhiji had transformed Indian Nationalism into a Mass Movement which was the greatest contribution of this movement. It was no longer a movement of professionals and intellectuals, now hundreds 1
of thousands of peasants, workers and artisans also participated in it.

The common men of India referred Gandhi as their ‘Mahatma’ who. dressed like them, lived like them and spoke their language and gradually became united against the British Raj under the leadership of Gandhiji. In this way, the Non-cooperation Movement changed the way of Indian nationalism.

Coupling of Non-cooperation with Khilafat

The Khilafat Movement (1919-1924) was a pan-Islamic political protest launched by Muhammad Ali and Shaukat Ali. Gandhiji saw this as an opportunity to bring Muslims and Hindus under one roof i.e. the Indian National Movement. Therefore, he coupled Non-Cooperation with Khilafat.
Or
Mahatma Gandhi announced in January, 1930 that he would began a march to break one of the most widely disliked laws in British India. The law which gave the state a monopoly in the manufacture and sale of Salt. This march is known as Dandi March.

The movement was started with famous Dandi March on 12th March, 1930. Gandhiji along with 78 of his followers began his foot march from Sabarmati Ashram to Dandi, a village on a seashore in Surat district, about 375 Ion away from Sabarmati Ashram.

The violation of Salt law by Gandhiji was a signal of the beginning of Civil Disobedience Movement. Soon, this movement spread like wildfire through the length and breadth of the country.

Significance of Dandi March in the history of the freedom struggle of India is

(i) This march made Gandhiji a centre of attraction of the whole of the world. The European press and the American press published detailed accounts of the Salt March conducted by Gandhiji.

(ii) Undoubtedly, it was the first National movement in which women participated in large numbers. Kamala Devi Chattopadhyay, the renowned socialist worker advised Gandhiji not to keep the movement limited to men-folk only. A large number of women along with Kamala Devi violated the Salt and Liquor laws and courted arrest collectively.

(iii) As a result of the Salt Movement, the colonial rulers understood it clearly that their authority was not going to remain permanent in India and now they will have to give some participation to the Indians in power.

(iv) The Salt March, brought Mahatma Gandhi to world attention. It was widely covered by the European and American press, which brought sympathy for Indian national movement. The Britishers were pressurised to bring out reform in administration.

Question 6.
What were the concerns that shaped the Mughal policies and attitudes towards region outside the subcontinent? (6)
Or
Describe in detail about the egalitarian nature of Mughal nobility and also explain how its served an useful function for administration of the empire.
The concerns that shaped the Mughal policies and attitudes towards regions outside the sub continent can be understood through the accounts of diplomatic relationships and conflicts with neighbouring political powers. These showed some tension and political opposition arising from competing regional interests. These accounts are.

(i) Relations between Safavids and Mughals The political and diplomatic relations between the Mughal kings and the neighbouring countries of Iran and Turan depended on the control of the boundary marked by the Hindukush mountains.

The Safavids and the Mughals had a continuous disagreement over Qandahar. The fortress had initially been under the control of Humayun, which was reconquered by Akbar in 1595, though the Safavid court maintained diplomatic relations with the Mughals, it continued to make claims to Qandahar.

Jahangir sent a diplomatic representative to the court of Shah Abbas in 1613, to plead the Mughal case for holding Qandahar under its control, but this mission failed. In the winter of 1622, a Persian army surrounded Qandahar and defeated Mughal troops present in the fortress town. They had to surrender the fortress and the city to the Safavids.

(ii) Relations between Mughals and Ottomans: The relationship between the Mughals and the Ottomans was based on the concern to ensure free movement for merchants and pilgrims in the territories under Ottoman control.

This was more true for the Hijaz, that part of Ottoman Arabia where the important pilgrim centres of Mecca and Medina were located. The Mughal emperor usually combined religion and commerce by exporting valuable goods to Aden and Mokha, both Red Sea ports, and distributing the profits of the sales in charity to the keepers of shrines and religious men present there.

When Aurangzeb found out about corruption involved in funds sent to Arabia, he favoured their distribution in India itself because he thought, India was as much a house of God as Mecca.
Or
Nobility included the corps of officer who were appointed to serve various functions related with administration of the empire. The following points illustrate the egalitarian nature of Mughal nobility

(i) In Akbar’s imperial service, Turani and Iranian nobles were present from the earliest phase of carving out a political dominion. Many among them had accompanied Humayun and others migrated later to the Mughal court.

(ii) From 1560 onwards, the Rajputs and Indian Muslim entered the imperial service. The acceptance of emperor’s suzerainty and marriage alliances cemmented the position of Rajputs in Mughal nobility.

(iii) The members of Hindu castes inclined towards education and accountancy were
also promoted. For instance, the finance minister of Akbar, Raja Todarmal was from Khatri caste.

(iv) Iranians gained high offices under Jahangir, whose politically influential queen, Nur Jahan was an Iranian. Later, Aurangzeb also appointed Rajputs to high positions and under him the Marathas accounted for a sizeable number within the body of officers.

(v) The Char Chaman (Four Gardens) written by Chandrabhan Barahman also point towards the fact that Mughal nobility was also comprised of people from different regions of India such as Karnataka, Bengal, Assam, Udaipur, Srinagar and Kumaon.

This egalitarian nature of Mughal nobility played significant role in consolidation and administration of the empire in the following ways

(i) It performed an effective function of check and balance, as it ensured that no faction was large enough to challenge the authority of the state.

(ii) The selection of people in administration from diverse ethnic, religious and regional background also played significant role in balancing the aspiration and sentiments of the people.

(iii) It created mutual competition among different faction of nobility to get more privileges from the emperor which helped in better administration of provinces.

(iv) These nobles were appointed in hierarchial position in charge of different aspect of governance which was also supplemented by effective network of spies, it ensured effective check on misappropriation and corruption.

Question 7.
The Revolt of 1857 was the effect of the rumours. Explain the causes of the revolt and the shaking of the values by the revolt. (6)

• The Fifth Report discusses the nature of East India Company’s rule in India and this was submitted to the British Parliament.
• The auction of land of the zamindars that was not mentioned in the Fifth Report was Jhansi.
• Fifth Report became the basis of intense parliamentary debates. The clause of Fifth Report consisted of petitions of zamindars and ryots and also reports of collection from different districts.

Section – C
Source Based Questions

Question 8.
From the Fifth Report
Referring to the condition of zamindars and the auction of lands, the Fifth Report stated: The revenue was not realised with punctuality, and lands to a considerable extent were periodically exposed to sale by auction.

In the native year 1203, corresponding with 1796-97, the land advertised for sale comprehended a jumma or assessment of sicca rupees 28,70,061, the extent of land actually sold bore a jumma or assessment of 14,18,756, and the amount of purchase money sicca rupees 17,90,416.

In 1204, corresponding with 1797-98, the land advertised was for sicca rupees 26,66,191, the quantity sold was for sicca rupees 22,74,076, and the purchase money sicca rupees 21,47,580. Among the defaulters were some of the oldest families of the country.

Such were the rajahs of Nuddea, Rajeshaye, Bishenpore (all districts of Bengal), … and others, the dismemberment of whose estates at the end of each succeeding year, threatened them with poverty and ruin, and in some instances presented difficulties to the revenue officers, in their efforts to preserve undiminished the amount of public assessment.
(i) What does the Fifth Report emphasise and where was it submitted? (1)
(ii) Which land was not mentioned in Fifth Report for auction? (1)
(iii) What did Fifth Report became basis of and what was its clause? (2)
(i) The Fifth Report discusses the nature of East India Company’s rule in India and this was submitted to the British Parliament.
(ii) The auction of land of the zamindars that was not mentioned in the Fifth Report was Jhansi.
(iii) Fifth Report became the basis of intense parliamentary debates.
The clause of Fifth Report consisted of petitions of zamindars and ryots and also reports of collection from different districts.

Question 9.

The Azamgarh Proclamation, 25th August, 1857 Section III – Regarding Public Servants. It is not a secret thing, that under the British Government, natives employed in the civil and military services have little respect, low pay, and no manner of influence; and all the posts of dignity and emolument in both die departments are exclusively bestowed on Englishmen,…

Therefore, all the natives in the British service ought to be alive to their religion and interest, and abjuring their loyalty to the English, side with the Badshahi Government, and obtain salaries of 200 and 300 rupees a month for the present, and be entitled to high posts in the future. … Section IV – Regarding Artisans.

It is evident that the Europeans, by the introduction of English articles into India, have thrown the weavers, the cotton dressers, the carpenters, the blacksmiths, and the shoemakers, etc., out of employ, and have engrossed their occupations, so that every description of native artisan has been reduced to beggary.

But under the Badshahi Government the native artisans will exclusively be employed in the service of the kings, the rajahs, and the rich; and this will no doubt ensure their prosperity. Therefore kings, the rajahs, and the rich; and this will no doubt ensure their prosperity. Therefore these artisans ought to renounce the English services
(i) How did the introduction of English affect the artisans? (1)
(ii) How would the condition of the artisans improve under the Badshahi Government? (1)
(iii) Why were the public servants dissatisfied with the British Government? (1)
(i) The effect on artisans was that they were deprived of their employment as the cheap machine made goods of Britain captured the Indian markets.

(ii) Under the Badshahi government, the condition of native artisans would improved as they would exclusively be employed in the service of the kings, the rajas and the rich.

(iii) The public servants were dissatisfied with the British Government because

• Under the British Government, natives employed in the civil and military service had no respect.
• Their salaries were low and they had no power or influence so, they were dissatisfied with the British Government.

Section – D
Map Based Question

Question 10.
(i) Locate any one of the following areas on the political Map of India. (1)
(a) Agra Or
(b) Jhansi

(ii) Identify the territory marked as A on the map given below which was under British control in 1857. (1)