## Whole Numbers Class 6 Notes Maths Chapter 2

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## CBSE Class 6 Maths Chapter 2 Notes Whole Numbers

### Whole Numbers Class 6 Notes Conceptual Facts

1. The numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, … which are used for counting are known as natural numbers. They are represented by N.

2. All natural numbers together with zero are called whole numbers. They are represented by W.
So, W = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, …

3. Every natural number is a whole number but reverse not true.

4. 0 is the smallest whole number whereas 1 is the smallest natural number.

5. We have no largest natural number or whole number.

6. The successor of a whole number is 1 more than the whole number.

7. The predecessor of a whole number is 1 less than the whole number but 0 has no predecessor.

8. All the natural numbers and whole numbers can be represented on number line.

9. On number line, positive numbers are taken on right side of the zero and negative numbers on left side.

Properties of whole numbers

If a, b, e are any whole numbers, then

• Closure property for addition: a + b is a whole number.
• Closure property for multiplication: a x b is a whole number.
• Commutative property for addition: a + b = b + a.
• Commutative property for multiplication: a x b = b x a
• Associative property for addition: a + (b + c) = (a + b) + c
• Associative property for multiplication: a x (b x c) = (a x b) x c
• Distributive property: a x (b + c) = a x b + a x c
• Identity for addition: a+0 = 0+a=a
• Identity for multiplication: a x 1 = 1 x a=a
• 0 ÷ a = 0 but a ÷ 0 is not defined.

## Knowing Our Numbers Class 6 Notes Maths Chapter 1

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## CBSE Class 6 Maths Chapter 1 Notes Knowing Our Numbers

### Knowing Our Numbers Class 6 Notes Conceptual Facts

1. To represent any number, we use ten symbols, namely 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9 which are called digits or figure.

2. Numbers help us to compare collection of two or more similar objects and we can decide which collections is bigger or smaller.

3. Comparison of numbers helps us to arrange the objects in increasing or decreasing order.

4. If we shift the digits of a given number, then the new number is different from the original one. 853 is different from 358 but 202 remains same even after changing the unit place and hundredth place of the number. Why?

5. If we add one more to the greatest 5-digit number, we get the smallest 6-digit number
99999 (5-digit) + 1 = 100000 (6-digit).

6. Generally, numbers are written in two types of charts:

• Hindu Arabic Place – Value Chart
• International Place – Value Chart.

7. Estimation gives us a rough idea of the answer to a question involving operations on number.

8. In Roman numeration system, only symbols are used to express a number instead of digits.
I = 1, V = 5, X = 10, L = 50, C = 100, D = 500, M =1000

9. Zero on the extreme left of a number has no value.

10. Ascending order means arrangement from the smallest to the greatest.

11. Descending order means arrangement from the greatest to the smallest.

## Algebra Class 6 Notes Maths Chapter 11

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## CBSE Class 6 Maths Chapter 11 Notes Algebra

### Algebra Class 6 Notes Conceptual Facts

1. In algebra, we generally use the letters like ‘a’, ‘b’, ‘c’ ‘d’, ‘x’, ‘y’, ‘z’ or any other symbol to represent an unspecified number.

2. These letters are called ‘literals’ or ‘variables’.

3. Numbers such as 2, 5, 6, -7, 8 etc. are called ‘constants’.

4. The literal numbers obey the four fundamental operations i.e., “+’, ‘x’, V.

5. We can establish some rules in making few geometrical shapes using matchsticks such as 2n, 3n or 5n
where n is variable and 2, 3, 5 are constants.

6. Rules of Arithmetics can also be represented by algebraic symbols.

• Commutative law of addition: a + b = b + a
• Commutative law of multiplication a x b = b x a
• Distributive law over addition a x (b + c) = a x b + a x c
• Associative law of addition (a + b) + c – a + (b + c)

7. Algebraic Expression: Expression like 4x + 5, y – 3, 4z – 3 are called as algebraic expression where x-, y and 2 are variables.

8. An algebraic equation has two sides, left hand side (LHS) and right hand side (RHS), with equal sign (=) between the two sides.

9. The value of the variable in an algebraic equation which satisfies the equation is called a solution to the equation.

## Mensuration Class 6 Notes Maths Chapter 10

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## CBSE Class 6 Maths Chapter 10 Notes Mensuration

### Mensuration Class 6 Notes Conceptual Facts

1. Perimeter is the distance covered along the boundary formed by the closed figures.

2. Perimeter of rectangle = 2 (length + breadth)

3. Perimeter of square = 4 x length of the side

4. Perimeter of equilateral triangle = 3 x length of each side

5. Area of a rectangle = length x breadth

6. Area of a square = side x side

7. Unit of perimeter = cm or m or km

8. Unit of area = sq cm or sq m or sq km (cm2 or m2 or km2)

## NCERT Class 6 Civics Chapter 3 Notes What is Government

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## What is Government Class 7 Notes Social Science Civics Chapter 3

### CBSE Class 6 Civics Chapter 3 Notes Understanding The Lesson

1. Every country needs a government to make decisions and execute them.

2. Government has a wide range of work such as:

3. Social welfare, service and developmental works;

4. Establish the social security;

5. Protecting the boundaries of the country and

6. Maintaining peaceful relations with other countries.

7. Government needs some amount of organization so that decisions can be made and implemented.

8. The government works at different levels-at local level, state level and at the national level.

9. There are two types of government-first democratic and second monarchy.

10. In a democratic government, people give the power to the government for making the decisions. The members are elected through the elections at different levels.

11. In monarchy, King or Queen has the power to make decisions and run the government. The monarch may have a small group of people to discuss matters with but the final decision-making power remains with the monarch. Unlike in a democracy, kings and queens do not have to explain their actions or defend the decisions they take.

12. The government makes laws and everyone who lives in the country has to follow these. This is the only way government can function. Government has power to make decisions and to enforce its decisions.

13. All over Europe and USA women and the poor have had to fight for participation in government. Women’s struggle to vote got strengthened during the First World War.

14. The term ‘suffrage’ usually means right to vote.

15. American women got the right to vote in 1920 while women in the UK got in 1928.

16. In India, before its independence, only a small minority was allowed to vote. Gandhiji demanded that all adults have the right to vote. This is known as universal adult franchise.

17. A journal, “Young India’ was published by the Gandhiji and the issues related to the marginalized, poor, women, labour etc., were strongly raised by him, time to time.

## NCERT Class 6 Civics Chapter 9 Notes Urban Livelihoods

On this page, you will find NCERT Class 6 Civics Chapter 9 Notes Pdf free download. CBSE Class 6 Social Science Notes Civics Chapter 9 SST Urban Livelihoods will seemingly help them to revise the important concepts in less time.

## Urban Livelihoods Class 6 Notes Social Science Civics Chapter 9

### CBSE Class 6 Civics Chapter 9 Notes Understanding the Lesson

1. There are more than five thousand towns and twenty-seven big cities in India.

2. Big cities like Chennai, Mumbai, Delhi, Kolkata, etc., have more than a million people living and working there.

3. Cities’ streets are always buzzing with activities. The vegetable vendors, flowers seller, newspapers hawker, auto-rickshaws, cobbler, barbershop, pushing carts, cycle trolley, rickshaws pullers etc., are there in city.

4. Many people in cities are doing their own work. They are not employed by anyone.

5. Urban market is a very busy place, and many shops are there like sweet shops, toys, clothes, footwear, utensils etc. There are garment showrooms too.

6. Vendors sell things that are oftem prepared at home by their families who purchase, clean, sort and make them ready to sell.

7. There are around one crore street vendors in India.

9. In a survey of Ahmedabad city it was foud that 12% of all the workers in the city were people working on the street.

10. In the urban market there are offices which provide services such as banks, courier and other to the people.

11. There is large quantity of daily wage labourers in the city and work as helpers to masons.

12. Many people are engaged in factories, such as garment factories. They work as a causal labourers. Jobs on casual basis are not permanent, having no security, no proper facility for any mishappening, for old age, medical facilities etc.

13. Call centres are set up in large rooms with workstations including computers and telephones.

14. India has become a major centre not only for Indian companies but also for foreign companies.

15. Working in Call Centres is a new form of employment in the big cities.

## NCERT Class 6 Civics Chapter 8 Notes Rural Livelihoods

On this page, you will find NCERT Class 6 Civics Chapter 8 Notes Pdf free download. CBSE Class 6 Social Science Notes Civics Chapter 8 SST Rural Livelihoods will seemingly help them to revise the important concepts in less time.

## Rural Livelihoods Class 6 Notes Social Science Civics Chapter 8

### CBSE Class 6 Civics Chapter 8 Notes Understanding The Lesson

1. Kalapattu is a village that is close to the sea coast in Tamil Nadu and surrounded by low hills.

2. People here do many kinds of work. Here people do farming and non-farming work. Paddy is the main crop that is grown in irrigated lands. Most of the families earn living through agriculture.

3. Thulasi works here on Ramalingam’s land. Ramalingam has 20 acres of paddy fields in Kalapattu.

4. Apart from this Thulasi does all the tasks at home. She cooks food, cleans the house, and washes clothes, collecting firewood, fetches water, grazing their cattle, getting materials such as groceries for the house.

5. Thulasi’s husband Raman is also a labourer. He sprays pesticides, loading sand from the river or stone from the quarry nearby. This is sent by truck to be used in nearby towns to make houses.

6. Sekar has only two acres land. During the harvest time he takes help of other small farmers and in turn helps them in harvesting their field.

7. Sekar takes seeds and fertilizers as a loan from the trader. And in turn, he sells out his paddy to him in lower price.

8. In India nearly two out of every five rural families are agricultural labourer families. Many of them are landless and others may own very small plots of land.

9. In the coastal areas, we find fishing villages. Pudupet is a village where people earn their living by fishing. Aruna and Paarivelan live in the village and had taken a loan from bank for purchasing catamaran, engine and nets.

10. During the monsoon, the fishermen and women cannot go the sea. During these months, they survive by borrowing from the trader.

11. Many of the small farmers often borrow money from moneylenders for purchasing basic things of agricul­ture such as seeds, fertilizers and pesticides.

12. The crop can also be ruined if the monsoon does not bring enough rain or heavy rain. Due to this the farm­ers are unable to pay back their loans.

13. Small farmers barely meet their needs and 80% of farmers belong to this group.

14. In some villages in Central India, both farming and collection from the forest are important sources of live­lihood. Collecting mahua, tendu leaves, honey, to be sold to traders, is an important source of additional income.

### Rural Livelihoods Class 6 CBSE Notes Important Terms

Labourer: A man who undertakes work of labour.

Harvesting: Reaping and gathering of crops.

Agricultural work: Work related to the agriculture.

Terrace farming: A kind of farming in the hilly areas.

Cooperative society: A society run by groups of members.

## NCERT Class 6 Civics Chapter 7 Notes Urban Administration

On this page, you will find NCERT Class 6 Civics Chapter 7 Notes Pdf free download. CBSE Class 6 Social Science Notes Civics Chapter 7 SST Urban Administration will seemingly help them to revise the important concepts in less time.

## Urban Administration Class 6 Notes Social Science Civics Chapter 7

### CBSE Class 6 Civics Chapter 7 Notes Understanding The Lesson

1. In the urban areas the Municipal Corporation is the body who is responsible for many work such as street lights, garbage collection, water supply, keeping the streets and the markets clean, making gardens and maintaining them.

2. Municipal Corporation is also responsible for ensuring that diseases do not to spread in the city.

3. Municipal Corporation also runs schools, hospitals and dispensaries.

4. In the smaller towns it is called a Municipal Council.

5. The city is divided into different wards and ward councillors get elected.

6. The decisions, like where a park or a new hospital should go are usually made by the Ward Councillors.

7. The complicated decisions that affect the entire city are taken by groups of councillors who form committees to decide and debate issues.

8. When the problems are within a ward then the people who live in the ward can contact their councillors.

9. The decided issues are implemented by the Commissioner and administrative staff who is appointed by the government.

10. Municipal Corporation has various departments such as water department, a department to look after gardens, another to look after roads.

11. The people have right to protest peacefully.

### Urban Administration Class 6 CBSE Notes Important Terms

Municipal Corporation: A body which works for welfare of big cities.

Wards: A small part of city.

Councillor: Member of wards.

Municipal Council: A body working for welfare of towns or small cities.

## NCERT Class 6 Maths Notes

NCERT Class 6 Maths Notes Pdf free download provided gives you an overview of the respective chapter and prepared in a manner that every concept is covered as per the syllabus guidelines. NCERT Notes for Class 6 Maths Standard are very effective for students to have last minute quick revision. Download the required study material from the resources available here and score higher grades in your exams.

## CBSE Class 6 Maths Notes

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## NCERT Class 6 Civics Chapter 6 Notes Rural Administration

On this page, you will find NCERT Class 6 Civics Chapter 6 Notes Pdf free download. CBSE Class 6 Social Science Notes Civics Chapter 6 SST Rural Administration will seemingly help them to revise the important concepts in less time.

## Rural Administration Class 6 Notes Social Science Civics Chapter 6

### CBSE Class 6 Civics Chapter 6 Notes Understanding The Lesson

1. Every police station has an area that comes under its control. Persons in that area can report cases or inform the police about any theft, accident, injury, fight etc.

2. It is the responsibility of the police of that station to enquire, to investigate and take action on the cases within its area.

3. Measuring land and keeping land records are the main work of the Patwari. The Patwari is known by different names in different states such as Lekhpal, Kanungo, Karamchari or Village Officer etc.

4. Each Patwari is responsible for a group of villages. The Patwari maintains and updates the records of the village.

5. Maintaining the details of map, measuring agricultural fields, collection of land revenue from the farmers and providing information to the government about the crops grown in the area concerned are the work of Patwari.

6. officials in this department supervise the Patwari’s work such as, SDM, Tehsildar and Naib- Tehsildar etc.

7. According to the new law, “Hindu Succession Amendment Act, 2005” lands divided equally among his sons, daughters and their mother. The same law will apply to all states and union territories of the country.

### Rural Administration Class 6 CBSE Notes Important Terms

Police Station: An office where complaints regarding theft, accident, injury, fight etc., are registered.

Patwari: A government official who is responsible for maintaining the records of lands and other matters of farmers.

Tehshil: A Sub-division of a district.

## NCERT Class 6 Civics Chapter 5 Notes Panchayati raj

On this page, you will find NCERT Class 6 Civics Chapter 5 Notes Pdf free download. CBSE Class 6 Social Science Notes Civics Chapter 5 SST Panchayati raj will seemingly help them to revise the important concepts in less time.

## Panchayati raj Class 6 Notes Social Science Civics Chapter 5

### CBSE Class 6 Civics Chapter 5 Notes Understanding the Lesson

1. Gram Sabha could be only one village or a few villages.

2. Every village panchayat is divided into wards. Ward member is elected from each ward. These members also called Panch.

3. The Gram Sabha members elect a Sarpanch who is also called Panchayat President.

4. Panch and Sarpanch together form the Gram Panchayat.

5. Each Panchayat has a Secretary appointed by Government.

6. Gram Panchayat meets regularly and one of its main tasks is to implement development programmes for all villages that comes under it.

7. The work of the Gram Panchayat has to be approved by the Gram Sabha.

8. Gram Sabha form committees like construction and development committees. These committees include some members of the Gram Sabha and some from the Gram Panchayat who work together to carry out specific tasks.

9. Panchayat Secretary is responsible for calling meeting of the Gram Sabha and Gram Panchayat and keeping a record of the proceedings.

10. The Panchayati Raj System is a process through which people participate in their own government.

11. Panchayati Raj system has three levels of Panchayats.

• Gram Sabha at Gram level
• Block-level which is called the Panchayat Samiti,
• Zila Parishad, at District level

12. Each state in the country has its own laws with regard to the Panchayat.

13. The idea of Panchayati Raj system is to provide more and more space for people to participate and raise their voices.

### Panchayati raj Class 6 CBSE Notes Important Terms

Panchayati Raj System: It is a three-tier system which provides more and more space for people to participate in the democratic system.

Gram Sabha: A primary unit of governance under Panchayati Raj System.

Gram Panchayat: Panch and Sarpanch together form the Gram Panchayat.

Panch: Member of wards.

Sarpanch: Head of the Panchayat Samiti.